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Artists Meret Oppenheim

Meret Oppenheim

Swiss Painter and Sculptor

Born: October 6, 1913 - Berlin-Charlottenburg, Germany

Died: November 15, 1985 - Berne, Switzerland

Quotes

"Every idea is born with its form. I make reality of ideas as they come into my head."
Meret Oppenheim
"I love natural materials. But everything man makes is nature, even plastic, even the atomic bomb."
Meret Oppenheim
"It's the artists who do the dreaming for society."
Meret Oppenheim
"Woman is a sandwich covered in white marble. Who covers a soup spoon in precious fur? Little Meret. Who has outdone us all? Little Meret."
Max Ernst

"Freedom is not given to you - you have to take it."

Synopsis

Meret Oppenheim's notebook from high school math class contains the following equation: "X= an Orange Rabbit". André Breton (the pope of Surrealism) loved this so much he published the whole notebook. With the looks of a Hollywood film star, and the brain of a mad scientist, Oppenheim managed to persuade the Surrealists to allow her to join their circle (which until then was strictly no-girls-allowed). Her fetishistic sculptures, fashioned from teacups, fur, high heels and other feminine domestic objects, address the themes of food, sex, death, cannibalism and bondage, always with a mischievous twist. Her famous fur-lined teacup was instantly embraced by the Surrealists as the quintessential expression of their movement.

Key Ideas

Of all the Surrealists, she took Breton's call "to hound the mad beast of function" most literally. Her sculptures repurpose household objects intended to serve one function and suggest another, usually outrageous, function for which they might be used.
Oppenheim was the only Surrealist who had any authority on psychoanalysis. Born into a family of Swiss analysts, Oppenheim was steeped in psychoanalytic theory and followed the teachings of Carl Gustave Jung. Throughout her life, she kept a dream diary that served as a wellspring for her creativity.
Oppenheim's work with the fashion industry helped break down the barriers between fine art and fashion. The line of Surrealist gloves she designed for the high-end clothier Elsa Schiaparelli (who went on to collaborate with Salvador Dalí) were especially cutting-edge, and continue to be widely imitated.
Although Oppenheim is normally aligned with Surrealism, her daring use of found objects is straight-up Dada. She is a key transitional figure, linking the two movements.
At a time when the only acceptable role for a woman in the art world was mistress or muse, Oppenheim made it as an artist. She broke the glass ceiling of Surrealism and beat it at its own game, harnessing the power of fantasies about dominance and submission (prevalent themes in Surrealist art) in an effort to destroy them.

Most Important Art

Object in Fur (1936)
This fur-covered teacup, saucer, and spoon, covered in Chinese gazelle pelt, is an unsettling hybrid: civilization meets wild animal. Viewed by many as the definitive surrealist object, the idea apparently arose from a conversation at a Paris café, where Picasso and his girlfriend Dora Maar were admiring Oppenheim's fur-covered bracelet. This provoked discussion about what else might be fur-covered. Both tea and fur were (then as now) a mark of civilization, sipped and worn by refined ladies. The combination, however, is distinctively uncivilized.

André Breton immediately saw the object as evidence of a fur fetish, and retitled the work Dejeuner en Fourrure (Breakfast in Fur) for his 1936 Exposition Surréaliste d'objet. Audiences of the time recognized the title as a reference to Sacher-Masoch's erotic, masochistic novel Venus in Fur (1870), which greatly increased the scandalous effect of the work. Oppenheim later insisted that the sado-masochistic reference was not in line with her original intention, which had merely been to make something strange.
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Biography

Childhood

Oppenheim grew up in Switzerland in a progressive, intellectual family. Her grandmother was active in the Swiss women's rights movement, and her aunt encouraged her to collect prints by Paul Klee, an important early influence on the young artist. Oppenheim's father was a psychoanalyst. At his recommendation, she recorded her dreams (which, according to psychoanalytic theory, provide insight into the unconscious) as a teenager and continued this practice for the rest of her life. The Surrealist 'pope' André Breton, an early champion of her work, later published some of these early writings in Le Cahier d'une Écolière (1957). Her dream images inspired her earliest paintings in 1931, among them Wurgeengel (an angel strangling an infant) and Suicides' Institute (a boy receives instruction on how to hang himself). By her late teens, Oppenheim was beginning to find life in Switzerland a little confining, and consulted her grandmother about whether or not to attend art school in Paris. Her grandmother conducted a Tarot card reading that predicted Oppenheim's life would be full of struggle, but ultimately deeply fulfilling from a creative standpoint. Oppenheim later remembered that that was the permission she needed to make the "conscious decision to be free" and move to Paris.

Early Period

Oppenheim enrolled in art classes at the Paris Académie de la Grande Chaumière, and quickly ascended in Surrealist circles, befriending Picasso, Giacometti and Arp, artists twice her age. She exhibited with them at the Salon des Surindépendants. In 1933, she exhibited her first sculpture, the bronze Giacometti's Ear (1933), a turning point in Oppenheim's career and a breakthrough for the Surrealists, who so far had not allowed women to participate as artists. In turn, she served as muse and model.

Oppenheim in Man Ray Photo

Among the artists for whom she posed was Man Ray. His famous Erotique Voilée (1933), featuring Oppenheim completely nude and covered in ink in a series of elegant poses with a printing press, illustrates the trap in which Oppenheim was caught. Blinded by her beauty, her mentors saw her as a beautiful female body meant to be admired alongside other objects. As muse and model, Oppenheim's primary function was to inspire the artist, as opposed to making work herself.

At the beginning of her career, Oppenheim modestly described herself as a "picture maker." In drawings, oils, collages, models and sculptures she explored the usual Surrealist themes: death, dreams, nature, and sex.

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Meret Oppenheim Biography Continues

In the late 1930s, she began working with the fashion designer Elsa Schiaparelli, an exciting collaboration that presented clothing that addressed themes of identity and personal transformation. Each pair of gloves was based on a different theme: painted fingernails, claws, or bones (x-ray style). The most widely imitated is the one with red nails, which inspired countless knock-offs.

Her role as an artist and muse brought notoriety with exhibitions in the capitals of Europe and in New York City. Her fame created insecurity, and in 1937 she abruptly ended a blazing affair with Max Ernst, leaving him in "highly shaken mental state" according to his love letters, evidently causing them both great pain. The reason she later gave was that she realized that this romantic entanglement would end her career.

Oppenheim Portrait Photo

Subsequently, her depression returned. She consulted Carl Jung but he did not diagnose her with neurosis. In 1937 she returned to Switzerland. Her final iconic piece of this era, Table with Bird Legs (1939), was exhibited at the Exhibition of Fantastic Furniture.

Middle Period

Oppenheim's middle years were turbulent. Low self-esteem and debilitating depression prevented her from making work for a period for 18 months in 1937. She went back to art school in Basel and began working through the depression and insecurity she felt in a male-dominated art world by making art about it. In Stone Woman (1938), a female body is half in the water and half out of the water, and literally turning into stone, or vice-versa, depending on how you look at it. It was a key transitional moment. Oppenheim did not exhibit during this period, but experimented privately with sculptures, paintings, and even daring fashion: hats shaped like the jaws of snarling dogs, for example, and slashed open lingerie were some of her earliest and best efforts - these also strongly reflect the artist's frame of mind at this point in her career.

Her personal life started to improve in 1945, when she met and married the businessman, Wolfgang La Roche. Although he was externally conventional, La Roche had a unconventional mind that delighted her. In 1954 her depression lifted altogether. She later recalled the flash of insight that let her regain pleasure in making pictures: she finally understood that "a creative body of work is only possible with an absolutely stable sense of confidence." She was ready to publicly reemerge.

Later Work

For the rest of her life Oppenheim applied her vibrant ideas and technical skill to painting, material art, collage, sculpture, costume and theatre. In 1956, she designed the costumes and sets for Picasso's play Le Désir attrapé par la queue (Desire caught by the tail). In 1959 she held one of the most-copied events in modern art. It was a private performance named Spring Banquet. Invitees feasted on a naked woman's body in a celebration of fertility and nature. Breton persuaded her to repeat it at EROS (Exposition Internationale du Surréalisme) in Paris, as Cannibal Feast. The change of name perverted her original meaning and led to fierce criticism that she had exploited a woman as an edible object.

In 1967, a Stockholm Moderna Museet retrospective drew her work to the attention of a new generation and she mocked her iconic images in Eichhörnchen (1969) (a beer mug with a fur handle), and Souvenir du Dejeuner en Fourrure (an embroidered mixed media composition featuring an image of the earlier work)(1972). With Roberto Lupo and Annamaria Boetti she resurrected the Surrealist game of artistic roulette, Cadavres Exquis, where multiple artists create a work by folding a piece of paper and adding images until a whole is unfolded.

Oppenheim put considerable thought into how she wanted to be remembered. She preserved her correspondence with a view to it being published (noting, for example, on certain envelopes of love letters that they could only be published after all persons involved had died). She was also in the habit of destroying her own work.

Oppenheim Meret Photograph

Although in dialogue with Feminism, she would have nothing to do with women-only exhibitions, feeling that this only perpetuated the problem, and using the term "ghetto," explaining: "there is no difference between man and woman: there is only artist or poet. Sex plays no role whatsoever. That is why I refuse to participate in exhibitions of woman only." In later interviews she emphasized, "women are not goddesses, not fairies, not sphinxes. All these are the projections of men." Having addressed these fantasies directly in her work, and participated in others' fantasies about her, Oppenheim saw this as the chief task of the female artist: "to prove via one's lifestyle that one no longer regards as valid the taboos that have been used to keep women in a state of subjugation for thousands of years. Freedom is not given; one has to take it."

She also rejected the label of Surrealist, commenting in 1984: "I believe what Breton wrote about poetry and art in his first manifesto in 1924 were some of the most beautiful words ever to have been written on the subject. By contrast, I feel quite sick when I think of all the things making reference to Surrealism today."

On her 36th birthday she had recorded a dream in which a skeleton had shown her an hourglass revealing that her life was half empty. Like the early Tarot reading that her life would be full of struggle and creativity, the prediction had come true - She died in 1985, aged 72.


Legacy

Given how little of her work was actually exhibited during her lifetime and how much of it was lost, Oppenheim's impact on future generations is all the more remarkable. Her wryly subversive Surrealist designs for Elsa Schiaparelli sparked endless imitations and spin-offs, from Tokio Kumagai's edible shoes to Lady Gaga's Meat Dress. She also inspired numerous works by Feminist artists of the 1960s and 70s.

Judy Chicago's Dinner Party, (essentially a dinner table featuring vaginas on plates), now on permanent display at the Brooklyn Museum, lifts ideas from Oppenheim and presents them on a grander scale. It is almost impossible to imagine Louise Bourgeois and later Eva Hesse's grotesque, yet alluring sculptures based on body parts without Oppenheim's earlier forays into this arena. Oppenheim's exploration of the body and landscape in works such as Stone Woman, or the body and food in Naked Banquet made impressions on Land Art, Earthworks, and Performance artists, especially Ana Mendieta, Carolee Schneemann, Yoko Ono, Marina Abramovic, experimental artists who incorporated their own bodies into their work.

Influences and Connections

Influences on artist

Artists, Friends, Movements

Influenced by artist

Artists, Friends, Movements

Meret Oppenheim
Interactive chart with Meret Oppenheim's main influences, and the people and ideas that the artist influenced in turn.
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View Influences Chart

Artists

Paul Klee
Pablo Picasso
Alberto Giacometti

Friends

Man Ray
André Breton

Movements

Expressionism
Dada
Surrealism
Meret Oppenheim
Meret Oppenheim
Years Worked: 1932-1985

Artists

Louise Bourgeois
Birgit Jurgenssen

Friends

Max Ernst
Man Ray

Movements

Surrealism
Pop Art
Feminist Art



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Useful Resources on Meret Oppenheim

Books
Websites
Articles
Videos
More
The books and articles below constitute a bibliography of the sources used in the writing this page. These also suggest some accessible resources for further research, especially ones that can be found and purchased via the internet.
biography
Meret Oppenheim - Defiance In The Face Of Freedom (1989)

By Bice Curiger

Meret Oppenheim: Beyond the Teacup (1996)

By Jacqueline Burckhardt

Meret Oppenheim: Book of Ideas: Early Drawings and Sketches for Fashion, Jewelry, and Designs (1996)

By Meyer-Thoss, Christiane

Women Artists and the Surrealist Movement (2002)

By Whitney Chadwick

More Interesting Books about Meret Oppenheim
Archive of Oppenheim's papers and letters

Swiss National Library

Surreal Sparks (2013)

Tretyakov Gallery

Sculpture and Sexuality: The Erotic Objects of Meret Oppenheim

Women Surrealists: Sexuality, Fetish, Femininity and Female Surrealism
By Sabina Daniela Stent
2011

transcripts
Meret Oppenheim - Interview with Robert Belton

Surrealism and Women
By Mary Ann Caws, Gloria Gwen Raaberg
1984

Meret Oppenheim in her own words

Narrative of IMAGO (see Video)
2013

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Cite this page

Content compiled and written by The Art Story Contributors

Edited and revised by Ruth Epstein

" Artist Overview and Analysis". [Internet]. . TheArtStory.org
Content compiled and written by The Art Story Contributors
Edited and revised by Ruth Epstein
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André Breton
André Breton
André Breton
André Breton, author of the 1924 Surrealist Manifesto, was an influential theorizer of both Dada and Surrealism. Born in France, he emigrated to New York during World War II, where he greatly influenced the Abstract Expressionists.
TheArtStory: André Breton
Surrealism
Surrealism
Surrealism
Perhaps the most influential avant-garde movement of the century, Surrealism was founded in Paris in 1924 by a small group of writers and artists who sought to channel the unconscious as a means to unlock the power of the imagination. Much influenced by Freud, they believed that the conscious mind repressed the power of the imagination. Influenced also by Marx, they hoped that the psyche had the power to reveal the contradictions in the everyday world and spur on revolution.
TheArtStory: Surrealism
Carl Jung
Carl Jung
Carl Jung
Carl Gustav Jung was a Swiss psychiatrist and the founder of analytical psychology. Jung studied the human psyche through an exploration of dreams, religion, mythology and art. Jung's extensive work and interest in the human unconscious was a major influence on some of the Abstract Expressionists.
Carl Jung
Salvador Dalí
Salvador Dalí
Salvador Dalí
Salvador Dalí was a Spanish Surrealist painter who combined a hyperrealist style with dream-like, sexualized subject matter. His collaborations with Hollywood and commercial ventures, alongside his notoriously dramatic personality, earned him scorn from some Surrealist colleagues.
TheArtStory: Salvador Dalí
Dada
Dada
Dada
Dada was an artistic and literary movement that emerged in 1916. It arose in reaction to World War I, and the nationalism and rationalism that many thought had led to the War. Influenced by several avant-gardes - Cubism, Futurism, Constructivism, and Expressionism - its output was wildly diverse, ranging from performance art to poetry, photography, sculpture, painting and collage. Emerging first in Zurich, it spread to cities including Berlin, Hanover, Paris, New York and Cologne.
TheArtStory: Dada
Paul Klee
Paul Klee
Paul Klee
The Swiss-born painter Paul Klee worked in a variety of styles, including Expressionism, geometric abstraction, and collage. His most famous works have a mystical quality and make use of linear and pictorial symbols.
TheArtStory: Paul Klee
Pablo Picasso
Pablo Picasso
Pablo Picasso
Picasso dominated European painting in the first half of the last century, and remains perhaps the century's most important, prolifically inventive, and versatile artist. Alongside Georges Braque, he pioneered Cubism. He also made significant contributions to Surrealist painting and media such as collage, welded sculpture, and ceramics.
TheArtStory: Pablo Picasso
Alberto Giacometti
Alberto Giacometti
Alberto Giacometti
The Swiss artist Alberto Giacometti created semi-abstract sculptures that took up themes of violence, sex, and Surrealism. His famous later work is characterized by towering, elongated figures in bronze.
TheArtStory: Alberto Giacometti
Hans Arp
Hans Arp
Hans Arp
Hans Arp (also known as Jean Arp) was a German-French artist who incorporated chance, randomness, and organic forms into his sculptures, paintings, and collages. He was involved with Zurich Dada, Surrealism, and the Abstraction-Creation movement.
TheArtStory: Hans Arp
Man Ray
Man Ray
Man Ray
Man Ray was an American artist in Paris whose photograms, objects, drawings, and other works played an important role in Dada, Surrealism, modern photography, and avant-garde art at large.
TheArtStory: Man Ray
Max Ernst
Max Ernst
Max Ernst
Max Ernst was a German Dadaist and Surrealist whose paintings and collages combine dream-like realism, automatic techniques, and eerie subject matter.
TheArtStory: Max Ernst
Judy Chicago
Judy Chicago
Judy Chicago
Judy Chicago is an American feminist artist and author. Originally associated with the Minimalist movement of the 1960s, Chicago soon abandoned this in favor of creating content-based art. Her most famous work to date is the installation piece The Dinner Party (1974-79), an homage to women's history.
TheArtStory: Judy Chicago
Louise Bourgeois
Louise Bourgeois
Louise Bourgeois
Louise Bourgeois was a French-American artist whose work added a feminist perspective to Surrealist themes of sex, childhood, and the uncanny. She is best known for her sculpture Fillette (1968) and her large-scale spider sculptures, such as Maman (1999).
TheArtStory: Louise Bourgeois
Eva Hesse
Eva Hesse
Eva Hesse
Eva Hesse was a major New York artist whose sculpture, assemblage, and installation brought issues of feminism and the body into Minimalism's formal vocabulary. She is heralded as one of the quintessential Post-Minimalist artists.
TheArtStory: Eva Hesse
Land Art
Land Art
Land Art
Land art, or Earth art, a term coined by artist Robert Smithson, refers to artworks from the 1960s and '70s that employed land and other natural elements. It is typical of a time when artists rejected the traditional art object, expanded definitions of sculpture, and sought to move art outside the conventional art world structure of galleries and museums.
TheArtStory: Land Art
Earth Art
Earth Art
Earth Art
Earth art, or Land art, a term coined by artist Robert Smithson, refers to artworks from the 1960s and '70s that employed the earth and other natural elements. It is typical of a time when artists rejected the traditional art object, expanded definitions of sculpture, and sought to move art outside the conventional art world structure of galleries and museums.
TheArtStory: Earth Art
Performance Art
Performance Art
Performance Art
Performance is a genre in which art is presented "live," usually by the artist but sometimes with collaborators or performers. It has had a role in avant-garde art throughout the twentieth century, playing an important part in anarchic movements such as Futurism and Dada. It particularly flourished in the 1960s, when Performance artists became preoccupied with the body, but it continues to be an important aspect of art practice.
TheArtStory: Performance Art
Ana Mendieta
Ana Mendieta
Ana Mendieta
Ana Mendieta was a Cuban-American performance artist who created work in the late twentieth century focusing on violence against the female body, as well as pieces involving a close connection with nature and the landscape.
Ana Mendieta
Carolee Schneemann
Carolee Schneemann
Carolee Schneemann
Carolee Schneemann is an American visual artist, known for her discourses on the body, sexuality and gender. Her work is primarily characterized by research into visual traditions, taboos, and the body of the individual in relationship to social bodies. Schneemann's works have been associated with a variety of art classifications including Fluxus, Neo-Dada, the Beat Generation, and happenings.
TheArtStory: Carolee Schneemann
Yoko Ono
Yoko Ono
Yoko Ono
Yoko Ono is a Japanese-American artist, musician, author, and peace activist, known for her work in avant-garde art, music and filmmaking as well as her marriage to the lendary John Lennon. Ono was highly succcesful iin bringing feminism to the forefront of the art world through her performance and conceptual pieces.
TheArtStory: Yoko Ono
Marina Abramović
Marina Abramović
Marina Abramović
Marina Abramović's is one of the key artists in the performance art movement. Her work often involves putting herself in grave danger and performing lengthy, harmful routines that result in her being cut or burnt, or enduring some privation.
TheArtStory: Marina Abramović
Expressionism
Expressionism
Expressionism
Expressionism is a broad term for a host of movements in early twentieth-century Germany and beyond, from Die Brücke (1905) and Der Blaue Reiter (1911) to the early Neue Sachlichkeit painters in the 1920s and '30s. Many Expressionists used vivid colors and abstracted forms to create spiritually or psychologically intense works, while others focused on depictions of war, alienation, and the modern city.
TheArtStory: Expressionism
Birgit Jurgenssen
Birgit Jurgenssen
Birgit Jurgenssen
Brigit Jurgenssen was an Austrian photographer and illustrator. Her photographs explored feminist themes, and she was greatly influenced by Meret Oppenheim and Louise Bourgeoise. Jurgenssen participated in Magna - Feminism: Art and Creativity, an exhibition curated by Valie Export.
Birgit Jurgenssen
Pop Art
Pop Art
Pop Art
British artists of the 1950s were the first to make popular culture the dominant subject of their art, and this idea became an international phenomenon in the 1960s. But the Pop art movement is most associated with New York, and artists such as Andy Warhol, who broke with the private concerns of the Abstract Expressionists, and turned to themes which touched on public life and mass society.
TheArtStory: Pop Art
Feminist Art
Feminist Art
Feminist Art
Feminist art emerged in the 1960s and '70s to explore questions of sex, power, the body, and the ways in which gender categories structure how we see and understand the world. Developing at the same time as many new media strategies, feminist art frequently involves text, installation, and performance elements.
TheArtStory: Feminist Art
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