About us
Artists Rene Magritte
Rene Magritte Photo

Rene Magritte

Belgian Painter

Movement: Surrealism

Born: November 21, 1898 - Lessines, Belgium

Died: August 15, 1967 - Brussels, Belgium

Rene Magritte Timeline


"Art evokes the mystery without which the world would not exist."
Rene Magritte
"Any ground subtracts its own hue from the colors which it carries and therefore influences."
Rene Magritte
"My painting is visible images which conceal nothing...they evoke mystery and indeed when one sees one of my pictures, one asks oneself this simple question 'what does that mean'? It does not mean anything, because mystery means nothing either, it is unknowable."
Rene Magritte
"We must not fear daylight just because it almost always illuminates a miserable world."
Rene Magritte
"[I aim to produce] pictures in which the eye must think in a way entirely different from the usual."
Rene Magritte
"Only thought can resemble. It resembles by being what it sees, hears, or knows; it becomes what the world offers it."
Rene Magritte

"Everything we see hides another thing, we always want to see what is hidden by what we see."

Rene Magritte Signature


Surely the most celebrated Belgian artist of the 20th century, Rene Magritte has achieved great popular acclaim for his idiosyncratic approach to Surrealism. To support himself he spent many years working as a commercial artist, producing advertising and book designs, and this most likely shaped his fine art, which often has the abbreviated impact of an advertisement. While some French Surrealists led ostentatious lives, Magritte preferred the quiet anonymity of a middle-class existence, a life symbolized by the bowler-hatted men that often populate his pictures. In later years, he was castigated by his peers for some of his strategies (such as his tendency to produce multiple copies of his pictures), yet since his death his reputation has only improved. Conceptual artists have admired his use of text in images, and painters in the 1980s admired the provocative kitsch of some of his later work.

Key Ideas

Magritte wished to cultivate an approach that avoided the stylistic distractions of most modern painting. While some French Surrealists experimented with new techniques, Magritte settled on a deadpan, illustrative technique that clearly articulated the content of his pictures. Repetition was an important strategy for Magritte, informing not only his handling of motifs within individual pictures, but also encouraging him to produce multiple copies of some of his greatest works. His interest in the idea may have come in part from Freudian psychoanalysis, for which repetition is a sign of trauma. But his work in commercial art may have also played a role in prompting him to question the conventional modernist belief in the unique, original work of art.
The illustrative quality of Magritte's pictures often results in a powerful paradox: images that are beautiful in their clarity and simplicity, but which also provoke unsettling thoughts. They seem to declare that they hide no mystery, and yet they are also marvelously strange. As Magritte biographer David Sylvester brilliantly described, his paintings induce "the sort of awe felt in an eclipse."
Magritte was fascinated by the interactions of textual and visual signs, and some of his most famous pictures employ both words and images. While those pictures often share the air of mystery that characterizes much of his Surrealist work, they often seem motivated more by a spirit of rational enquiry - and wonder - at the misunderstandings that can lurk in language.
The men in bowler hats that often appear in Magritte's pictures can be interpreted as self-portraits. Portrayals of the artist's wife, Georgette, are also common in his work, as are glimpses of the couple's modest Brussels apartment. Although this might suggest autobiographical content in Magritte's pictures, it more likely points to the commonplace sources of his inspiration. It is as if he believed that we need not look far for the mysterious, since it lurks everywhere in the most conventional of lives.

Most Important Art

Rene Magritte Famous Art

The Treachery of Images (1929)

The Treachery of Images cleverly highlights the gap between language and meaning. Magritte combined the words and image in such a fashion that he forces us to question the importance of the sentence and the word. "Pipe," for instance, is no more an actual pipe than a picture of a pipe can be smoked. Magritte likely borrowed the pipe motif from Le Corbusier's book Vers une architecture (1923), since he was an admirer of the architect and painter, but he may also have been inspired by a comical sign he knew in an art gallery, which read, "Ceci n'est pas de l'Art." The painting is the subject of a famous book-length analysis by Michel Foucault. One might also compare it with Joseph Kosuth's handling of a similar problem of image, text, and reality in his 1965 installation One and Three Chairs.
Read More ...

Rene Magritte Artworks in Focus:



Rene Magritte was the eldest of three boys, born to a fairly well-off family. His father is thought to have been in the manufacturing industry, and his mother was known to be a milliner before her marriage. Magritte's development as an artist was influenced by two significant events in his childhood; the first was an encounter with an artist painting in a cemetery, who he happened across while playing with a companion. Magritte later wrote, "I found, in the middle of some broken stone columns and heaped-up leaves, a painter who had come from the capital, and who seemed to me to be performing magic." The second pivotal event was the suicide of his mother in 1912 when Magritte was 14. According to the apocryphal account, Magritte was present when her body was fished out of a river, her face covered completely by her white dress. While current scholars believe this to be no more than a myth propagated by his nurse, the image of a head uncannily concealed by a contour-hugging cloth reoccurs throughout the artist's oeuvre.

Early Training

Rene Magritte Young Man

Magritte first began to paint in 1915 and enrolled in the Académie des Beaux-Arts in Brussels the following year. However, he was fairly uninspired by his classes, and his attendance suffered as a result. He did become close friends with a fellow student, Victor Servranckx, who introduced Magritte to Futurism, Cubism, and Purism. In particular, Magritte was drawn to the work of Jean Metzinger and Fernand Leger, both of whom had much influence on Magritte's early work, as is evident from his experiments with Cubism such as his 1925 piece Bather.

Mature Period

In 1921, Magritte performed his obligatory military service and returned home in 1922 to marry Georgette Berger, a girl he had known since childhood. He also began work under Servranckx's supervision as a draughtsman in a wallpaper factory. This job lasted about a year, after which Magritte became a freelance designer of posters and publicity. In 1926, he signed a contract with the Galerie le Centaure in Brussels and was able to make his living as a fine artist for a brief spell. This early period was marked by profound changes in Magritte's work. Around 1925 he first saw the work of Giorgio de Chirico and began to work more distinctly within the Surrealist idiom. Not only were Magritte's images from the mid-1920s reminiscent of the desolate and mysterious mood that de Chirico created in his work, but the younger artist also went so far as to actually transpose many of de Chirico's favorite objects such as spheres, trains, and plaster hands onto his own canvases.

Rene Magritte Biography

From 1927 to 1930, Magritte lived in Paris and forged strong connections with André Breton's coterie of Parisian Surrealists that at that time included artists such as Max Ernst and Salvador Dalí. He began incorporating more ambiguously organic forms in his work and experimenting with quintessentially Surrealist subject matter such as madness and hysteria. However, Magritte was increasingly disillusioned by the "dark" subjects of his fellow Surrealists. Perhaps most significantly, it was in Paris that Magritte began to experiment with the use of words and language in his paintings.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Rene Magritte Biography Continues

By 1930, his contract with the Galerie le Centaure had ended, and, later that year, the gallery shut its doors altogether. Magritte returned to Brussels to take up work in commercial advertising once again. Scholars dispute whether Magritte also supplemented his income during this time by producing faked paintings of established artists and even perhaps forged currency. Regardless, from 1930 to 1937, Magritte had little time to devote to his own art. By the late 1930s however, the growing interest of international collectors, including Edward James in London, led to Magritte's increased financial independence, and he was at last able to give up commercial work almost completely.

Late Period

Rene Magritte Photo

Just as Magritte was achieving success and recognition, the Second World War broke out. Although he continued to develop his signature style, he also increasingly deployed a bright, impressionistic palette as a subversive response to the bleakness of the war. He wrote, "The sense of chaos, of panic, which Surrealism hoped to foster so that everything might be called into question was achieved much more successfully by those idiots the Nazis... Against widespread pessimism, I now propose a search for joy and pleasure." In 1946, Magritte signed a manifesto called Surrealism in Full Sunlight, and broke with Breton. This phase was followed by Magritte's brief experiment with an intentionally provocative "savage" style he called "vache" ("cow") that was characterized by vulgar subjects, crude coloring, and is generally regarded as parodying the Fauves. As Magritte expected, his works in this style were phenomenally unpopular. For the remainder of the 1950s and '60s, Magritte returned to his characteristic style and set of subjects. By the end of his life, he enjoyed great success and there were six major retrospectives of his oeuvre in the 1960s alone.


Magritte's work had a major impact on a number of movements that followed his death, including Pop, Conceptualism, and the painting of the 1980s. In particular, his work was hailed as a harbinger of upcoming trends in art for its emphasis on concept over execution, its close association with commercial art, and its focus on everyday objects that were often repeated in pictorial space. It is easy to see why artists such as Andy Warhol, Martin Kippenberger, and Robert Gober cite Magritte as a profound influence.

Influences and Connections

Influences on artist

Artists, Friends, Movements

Influenced by artist

Artists, Friends, Movements

Rene Magritte
Interactive chart with Rene Magritte's main influences, and the people and ideas that the artist influenced in turn.
- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
View Influences Chart


Giorgio de ChiricoGiorgio de Chirico
Max ErnstMax Ernst
Jean MetzingerJean Metzinger
Fernand LégerFernand Léger
André BretonAndré Breton


Paul EluardPaul Eluard
Edward JamesEdward James


Rene Magritte
Rene Magritte
Years Worked: 1915 - 1967


Marcel BroodthaersMarcel Broodthaers
Andy WarholAndy Warhol
Martin KippenbergerMartin Kippenberger
Robert GoberRobert Gober
Joseph KosuthJoseph Kosuth
John BaldessariJohn Baldessari


Paul-Gustave van HeckePaul-Gustave van Hecke
E. L. T. MesensE. L. T. Mesens
Paul NougePaul Nouge


Pop ArtPop Art
Conceptual ArtConceptual Art
Appropriation ArtAppropriation Art

If you see an error or typo, please:
tell us
Cite this page

Content compiled and written by Sophia Powers

Edited and published by The Art Story Contributors

" Artist Overview and Analysis". [Internet]. . TheArtStory.org
Content compiled and written by Sophia Powers
Edited and published by The Art Story Contributors
Available from:
[Accessed ]

By submitting the above you agree to The Art Story privacy policy.

Useful Resources on Rene Magritte






The books and articles below constitute a bibliography of the sources used in the writing of this page. These also suggest some accessible resources for further research, especially ones that can be found and purchased via the internet.


Magritte Recomended resource

By Suzi Gablik

Magritte: Attempting the Impossible

By Siegfried Gohr, Rene Magritte

Keeping an Eye Open - Magritte: Bird into Egg Recomended resource

By Julian Barnes
One chapter devoted the originality of Magritte

More Interesting Books about Rene Magritte
Magritte Foundation Recomended resource

Rene Magritte at Tate Liverpool

Image Gallery for the Exhibition The Pleasure Principle at Tate Liverpool

Michel Foucault, This is Not a Pipe Recomended resource

Provides the Full Text of Foucault's Essays on Rene Magritte

Magritte and Contemporary Art: The Treachery of Images

Includes Essays, Information, and an Image Gallery from the LACMA Exhibition

Rene Magritte, La Periode vache

November 9, 2008

La Reproduction Interdite: Rene Magritte and Forgery

By Patricia Allmer
Papers of Surrealism
Spring 2007

Surreal Hero for a Nation of Contradictions

By Alan Riding
The New York Times
April 26, 1998

Magritte And His Defiance Of Life Recomended resource

By Michael Kimmelman
The New York Times
September 11, 1992

in pop culture

Magritte: Monsieur Rene Magritte

Documentary about the artist

Rene and Georgette Maritte with their Dog After the War

Paul Simon Song

After Magritte (1971)

Surrealist play by Tom Stoppard

Did we succeed in explaining the art to you?
If Yes, please tell others about us: