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Artists Richard Long

Richard Long

British Sculptor and Land Artist

Movements: Land Art, Conceptual Art, Post-Minimalism

Born: June 2nd, 1945 - Bristol, England

Quotes

"I guess I'm an opportunist, really. I go out into the world with an open mind, and I rely to a degree on intuition and chance. The idea of making art out of nothing, I've got a lot of time for that."
Richard Long
"My art is the essence of my experience, not a representation of it."
Richard Long
"You could say that my work is...a balance between the patterns of nature and the formalism of human, abstract ideas like lines and circles. It is where my human characteristics meet the natural forces and patterns of the world, and that is really the kind of subject of my work."
Richard Long
"The speed of the hand gestures is important because that's what makes the splashes, which shows the wateriness of the mud, and water is the main subject and content of these works, they show its nature."
Richard Long
"You have this wash sweeping up the mud ... muddy creeks ... I guess it's right to say that I have used that experience in my art: like water, the tides, the mud. All that cosmic energy is there in my work."
Richard Long
"One thing I like about my work is all the different ways it can be in the world. A local could walk by and not notice it, or notice it and not know anything about me. Or someone could come upon a circle and know it was a circle of mine. I really like the notion of the visibility or invisibility of the work as well as the permanence and transience."
Richard Long
"My photographs are facts which bring the right accessibility to remote, lonely or otherwise unrecognizable works. Some sculptures are seen by few people, but can be known about many."
Richard Long

"My work has become a simple metaphor of life. A figure walking down his road, making his mark. It is an affirmation of my human scale and senses."

Synopsis

Using his walks as art, Richard Long's excursions into nature and his minimally invasive marks on the landscape have broadened the definitions of sculpture to include performance and conceptual art. While the work is often theoretical and hermetic, he contextualizes his actions in more universal and historical terms, however explaining, "if you undertake a walk, you are echoing the whole history of mankind." This primal quality runs throughout his art, even pieces designed for a gallery or museum setting are crafted from elemental materials of stone, sticks, muds, or else are simply photographic or textual records of his experiences. Yet through these unassuming gestures, Long's art has influenced generations of Land artists and has shifted the notion of art away from the object and the idea of permanence.

Key Ideas

Working with natural materials in their original setting and leaving his creations to be reclaimed by nature, Long has refused the notion of art as a permanent object. By refusing to create lasting or monumental structures, he has expanded the acceptable materials and techniques for sculpture and undermined the traditional ideals of that medium. Furthermore, in rejecting artistic media and techniques in favor of minimalist rearrangements of natural materials, he harnesses unassuming materials to create meaningful statements.
With his simple forms of circles and lines, Long connects the viewer with lyrical and timeless elements of nature. His truthfulness to the natural state of his materials and his respect for the landscape results in works that emphasize the beauty of nature. He makes small gestures that carry deep meanings, suggesting the long history of man's relationship to the environment. Whether in the minimal footprint of his walks and interventions in the landscape, or his reverence for the unadorned beauty of elemental materials like mud, sticks, and stones, he encourages the viewer to appreciate the straightforward, primal beauty of nature.
Moving stones between remote locations or treading a path through grass, Long's most iconic works leave minimal impact on their natural environment and are often erased by the progression of time. In repeating these understated gestures, Long legitimizes these quiet interventions as art. He understands that, because his works are often undetectable, viewers might not even know they are looking at work of art, but that his experience itself and his intentionality qualifies even the simplest actions as artistic expression. Long believes that it is not necessary for the artwork to be understood as art by the viewer, but that his presence and actions are sufficiently artistic without this external acknowledgment.
In expanding the definitions of sculpture, Long has incorporated interdisciplinary elements from Performance art, Conceptual art, and photography. Where photography began as a way of documenting his performative actions or temporary interventions in remote locations, it has evolved to be a carefully considered component of his work. Long insists that "even though a lot of my work takes place in the landscape, the gallery is the conduit for bringing my work into the public domain" and therefore it is necessary to create artifacts or records of his experiences that can be shared with a viewer.

Most Important Art

Line Made by Walking (1967)
This piece is a straight line in the grass, a path-like impression made through the act of simply walking. Long transforms the landscape into his personal canvas, pacing repeatedly over an unremarkable patch of grass in a London park until a distinct line appeared. The artist then documented this alternation with a photograph, which he took at a perpendicular angle so his trace can be easily seen. The resulting work is part performance, part sculpture, and part photograph, transcending these categories to create a piece that exists in all these categories. Incorporating elements of performance into the sculpture and preserving the work through photography, his process was as much about the resulting photograph as the sculpture was about expressing the journey and the event of walking.

Made while still a student at St Martin's School of Art in London, Long broke with the expectations of sculpture and demonstrated that an impermanent mark in nature could be a meaningful gesture. Part of the emerging Conceptual art movement, the importance of the work shifted from the creation of an object to the fulfillment of an idea, or simply the ideation of an art action. The photograph creates a tangible marker of this action, but the piece itself was a temporary intervention in the landscape, quickly erased by the natural processes of growth and regeneration. In this simple act of walking, Long expands the definition of art to include ordinary, but mindful, interventions that may or may not result in any lasting visual object; this would be highly influential in the rejection of Pop art. Pop had broken from the traditional expectations of artistic originality and highbrow subject matter and technique; Long proposes another path for artistic exploration by highlighting the materials and processes of the natural world. Where Pop had focused on the consumable object, Long's work deemphasized the art object in favor of a performance or an idea.

Long's work returns to more mystical notions of artistic creation, although he conveys these ideas through minimalist means: here, the line shows an exertion of energy and human intentionality. In this sense, it serves as a highly conceptual exploration of the transience of time, distance, and place, but presents these ideas in a very grounded and physical landscape.
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Biography

Childhood and Education

Born in Clifton, a suburb of Bristol, England, as a young boy Richard Long played alone in the surrounding hillsides and lush nature of the Avon Gorge. He often returned home after miles-long walks, during which he immersed himself in the natural landscape. His liberal-minded mother and educator father fully supported Richard's desire to explore the outdoors and practice art.

Long's early artistic sensibilities were also encouraged by his school; he would often arrive before classes began to spend time painting and became known as the school artist. He created scenery for school plays and was allowed to create a mural in the dining hall at age 13. His parents similarly allowed him to create a large mural of snow-capped mountains in the family's living room.

Early Training

Richard Long Biography

Next, Long transferred to the rather conservative and provincial West of England College of Art, where his love of nature and sport was atypical. Here he began experimenting with the physicality that would become central to his artistic production. His refusal of more traditional forms of painting or sculpture, however, was problematic; he was ultimately expelled for an ephemeral, snow-based, school project. Creating a large snowball, Long carefully rolled it down a slope, tracing the existing contours in the landscape. The end result was a linear formation in the snow, which he photographed. At this point, the photograph was merely a document of the finished work of art, an indentation in the snow that would eventually disappear. In the context of the conservative profile of the college, this experimentation was inconceivable; Long was deemed "too precocious," and asked to leave. He later explained that the school considered his iconoclastic artwork a sign that he was "mad." This episode, however, was the beginning of a creative process that would eventually bring him to international attention.

Taking a break from schooling, Long briefly worked in a paper mill, where he continued to create art, frequently taking excess paper to make crumpled sculptures. Enrolling at Saint Martin's School of Art in London, he joined a tight-knit group of friends, becoming especially close to peer Hamish Fulton. While his professors included the acclaimed sculptors Anthony Caro and Philip King, Long continued his independent investigation of less traditional media for sculpture. Instead of working in metal or stone, he experimented with sand and water in the school's garden or on the rooftops, where he blocked the school's drains to leave water stains on the roof's surface. At a time when his colleagues were working on monumental forms in fiberglass and welded metal, his quiet, iconoclastic gestures broke with the legacies of both Abstract Expressionism and Pop art, abandoning the studio and the very notion of permanency in favor of understated, performative, and ephemeral works of art.

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Richard Long Biography Continues

Mature Period

Richard Long Photo

Straight from Saint Martin's, Long was recognized on the international art circuit, beginning with the influential German gallerist Konrad Fischer in 1968. As Long later recalled, he "sent some sticks in the post from a tiny post office [in Ireland]. On the strength of those sticks Konrad offered me a show in Dusseldorf. Everything came together fast." Although his work had not yet found an audience in England, it was enthusiastically accepted abroad, where it was seen alongside the performances of Josef Beuys, the minimalist works by Carl Andre or the conceptual art of Lawrence Weiner. Following the successful trip to Germany, he traveled to Italy, where he met Giovanni Anselmo and Marisa Merz and showed in the influential Arte Povera exhibition of 1968. Andre, an early admirer of Long's work who called him a "master artist of the earth taken as a living entity," introduced his work to dealers in New York. These connections and assistance propelled both his self-esteem and career.

Long marveled that he was able to support himself by selling this unconventional work, explaining, "I was amazed that someone bought that first show. It was a line of sticks on the floor. I knew what I doing was important but I had no idea it would be commercially viable." Using the small income from the sale of his work, he traveled to Africa in the summer of 1969, where he created a series of work atop Mt. Kilimanjaro. He also married his art school girlfriend Denise Johnston, in a ceremony in Kenya where they stood on either side of the equator. The couple later had two daughters, Betsy and Tamsin.

Long's environmental sculptures and walking-based works of the late 1960s and 1970s intersected with contemporary experiments in performance and conceptual art. Although many of his works were based on his actions and documented with sparse imagery and text, his focus on nature made him a pioneer in the emerging field of Land Art.

Late Period

Richard Long Portrait

While Long's work has influenced Environmental artists, his approach to the natural world is more personal and experiential than activist. Since that first trip to Africa, Long has traveled extensively, performing walks and recording them for his artwork. These excursions can take on extreme dimensions, walking for weeks in harsh climates and courting the dangers of injury and wild animals, yet they are less about endurance than the complete immersion into nature and the independence of his solitary process.

In order to facilitate the exhibition of his work, Long has found ways to represent his walks in physical forms. In 1970 he performed a spiral walk with muddy boots in the Dwan Gallery in New York. For some projects, Long walks to collect natural materials, from which he forms drawings and sculptures. He has also incorporated photography as a meaningful, considered component of his artwork, rather than just a documentation of his often-inaccessible or ephemeral projects. He is celebrated internationally, including three nominations for the prestigious Turner Prize before his 1989 award, his 2001 election to the National Academy and appointment to knighthood in 2013.

Long has returned home, living today in a converted schoolhouse near Bristol with his current partner, the writer and art historian Denise Hooker. While his work is not dependent on his hometown, he argues that "every good artist is first and foremost a local artist ... whether I like it or not, I'm grounded in being a Bristol or West Country or even an English artist."


Legacy

Rejecting both traditional and mid-century avant-garde techniques and materials, Long has expanded sculpture and painting by introducing natural elements and performance. A pioneer of the Land Art movement of the 1960s and 1970s, he is one of the most influential artists of his generation, drawing upon a network of Conceptual, Minimalist, and Performance artists to create a range of temporal and ephemeral work. He challenged the definitions of sculpture and conceptual art by proving that a pedestrian act such as walking can be the medium and the artwork. He additionally was subversive in regard to painting and its traditional gesture by applying mud directly to a gallery wall with his hand. His manipulations within nature have inspired artists such as Andy Goldsworthy and Roger Ackling, while his gallery installations of natural materials have impacted artists like Tony Cragg and Martin Creed.

Influences and Connections

Influences on artist

Artists, Friends, Movements

Influenced by artist

Artists, Friends, Movements

Richard Long
Interactive chart with Richard Long's main influences, and the people and ideas that the artist influenced in turn.
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View Influences Chart

Artists

Vincent van Gogh
Paul Gauguin
Carl Andre
Joseph Beuys

Friends

John Hilliard

Movements

Arte Povera
Conceptual Art
Performance Art
Richard Long
Richard Long
Years Worked: 1967 - Current

Artists

Tony Cragg
Andy Goldsworthy

Friends

Hamish Fulton

Movements

Conceptual Art
Minimalism
Land Art
Performance Art
Environmental Art

Useful Resources on Richard Long

Books
Websites
Articles
Videos
The books and articles below constitute a bibliography of the sources used in the writing this page. These also suggest some accessible resources for further research, especially ones that can be found and purchased via the internet.
written by artist
Richard Long: Walking the Line

By Richard Long and Denise Hooker

artworks
Richard Long: Walking in Circles

By Hamish Fulton and Anne Seymour

Richard Long: Time and Space

By Lucy Badrocke and Richard Long

More Interesting Books about Richard Long
One Step Beyond

By Sean O'Hagan
The Guardian
May 9, 2009

In the Mud with Richard Long

By Robert Butler
2008

Heaven and Earth

By Ruth Rosengarten
2009

No Stone Unturned

By Nicholas Wroe
The Guardian
June 27, 2003

More Interesting Articles about Richard Long
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Cite this page

Content compiled and written by The Art Story Contributors

Edited and published by The Art Story Contributors

" Artist Overview and Analysis". [Internet]. . TheArtStory.org
Content compiled and written by The Art Story Contributors
Edited and published by The Art Story Contributors
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Performance Art
Performance Art
Performance Art
Performance is a genre in which art is presented "live," usually by the artist but sometimes with collaborators or performers. It has had a role in avant-garde art throughout the twentieth century, playing an important part in anarchic movements such as Futurism and Dada. It particularly flourished in the 1960s, when Performance artists became preoccupied with the body, but it continues to be an important aspect of art practice.
TheArtStory: Performance Art
Conceptual Art
Conceptual Art
Conceptual Art
Conceptual art describes an influential movement that first emerged in the mid-1960s and prized ideas over the formal or visual components of traditional works of art. The artists often challenged old concepts such as beauty and quality; they also questioned the conventional means by which the public consumed art; and they rejected the conventional art object in favor of diverse mediums, ranging from maps and diagrams to texts and videos.
TheArtStory: Conceptual Art
Abstract Expressionism
Abstract Expressionism
Abstract Expressionism
A tendency among New York painters of the late 1940s and '50s, all of whom were committed to an expressive art of profound emotion and universal themes. The movement embraced the gestural abstraction of Willem de Kooning and Jackson Pollock, and the color field painting of Mark Rothko and others. It blended elements of Surrealism and abstract art in an effort to create a new style fitted to the postwar mood of anxiety and trauma.
TheArtStory: Abstract Expressionism
Pop Art
Pop Art
Pop Art
British artists of the 1950s were the first to make popular culture the dominant subject of their art, and this idea became an international phenomenon in the 1960s. But the Pop art movement is most associated with New York, and artists such as Andy Warhol, who broke with the private concerns of the Abstract Expressionists, and turned to themes which touched on public life and mass society.
TheArtStory: Pop Art
Giovanni Anselmo
Giovanni Anselmo
Giovanni Anselmo
Giovanni Anselmo is an Italian artist associated with the Arte Povera movement. Working mainly as a sculptor - but also photography and drawing - and using mixed media including metal, plastic, water, stone and even perishable foods, Anselmo's work is highly conceptual at times, and will require constant "feeding" due to many of the perishable and tenuous elements he employs in his art.
Giovanni Anselmo
Marisa Merz
Marisa Merz
Marisa Merz
Marisa Merz is an Italian artist associated with the Arte Povera movement, and the wife of fellow artist Mario Merz. Her work, while typical of most Arte Povera artists in that she uses mixed media, is often considered profoundly personal and private. Merz's use of crafts in particular (such as paper, wax, yarn, and metals), as opposed to harsh industrial materials, is what set her apart. Merz received the Venice Biennale lifetime achievement award in 2001.
Marisa Merz
Minimalism
Minimalism
Minimalism
Minimalism emerged as a movement in New York in the 1960s, its leading figures creating objects which blurred the boundaries between painting and sculpture, and were characterized by unitary, geometric forms and industrial materials. Emphasizing cool anonymity over the passionate expression of the previous generation of painters, the Minimalists attempted to avoid metaphorical associations, symbolism, and suggestions of spiritual transcendence.
TheArtStory: Minimalism
Andy Goldsworthy
Andy Goldsworthy
Andy Goldsworthy
Andy Goldsworthy is a British sculptor and photographer who has created site-specific Earth art all over the world. From a young age Goldsworthy worked the land as a laborer on farms; the rhythmic nature of this work influencing the way that he makes his sculptures. Goldsworthy uses photography to capture his nature-based artworks at their apexes.
Andy Goldsworthy
Tony Cragg
Tony Cragg
Tony Cragg
Tony Cragg is a contemporary British visual artist and sculptor. His earlier works were made from found materials, such as discarded construction materials, and used household materials. In the 1970s, he created sculptures simply by stacking, splitting, and crushing materials. Cragg makes a point to say that his sculptures are made by him, and not constructed in factories.
Tony Cragg
Land Art
Land Art
Land Art
Land art, or Earth art, a term coined by artist Robert Smithson, refers to artworks from the 1960s and '70s that employed land and other natural elements. It is typical of a time when artists rejected the traditional art object, expanded definitions of sculpture, and sought to move art outside the conventional art world structure of galleries and museums.
TheArtStory: Land Art
Post-Minimalism
Post-Minimalism
Post-Minimalism
Post-Minimalism refers to a range of art practices that emerged in the wake of Minimalism in the late 1960s, such as Body art, Performance, Process art, Site-Specific art, and aspects of Conceptual art. Some artists created art objects that do not have the representational function of traditional sculpture, objects that often have a strong material presence; others reacted against Minimalism's impersonality, and reintroduced emotionally expressive qualities.
TheArtStory: Post-Minimalism
Vincent van Gogh
Vincent van Gogh
Vincent van Gogh
Vincent van Gogh was a Dutch painter, commonly associated with the Post-Impressionist period. As one of the most prolific and experimental artists of his time, van Gogh was a spontaneous painter and a master of color and perspective. Troubled by personal demons all his life, many historians speculate that van Gogh suffered from a Bipolar disorder.
TheArtStory: Vincent van Gogh
Paul Gauguin
Paul Gauguin
Paul Gauguin
Paul Gauguin was a French Post-Impressionist artist who employed color fields and painterly strokes in his work. He is best known for his primitivist depictions of native life in Tahiti and Polynesia.
TheArtStory: Paul Gauguin
Carl Andre
Carl Andre
Carl Andre
Carl Andre is an American Minimalist whose prominence rose in the late 1960s with a series of large public artworks and sculpture. His linear sculpture was included in the famed 1966 Primary Structures group exhibition at the Jewish Museum.
TheArtStory: Carl Andre
Joseph Beuys
Joseph Beuys
Joseph Beuys
Joseph Beuys was a German multi- and mixed-media artist best known for incorporating ideas of humanism, social philosophy and politics into his art. Beuys practiced everything from installation and performance art to traditional painting and "social sculpture." He was continually motivated by the belief of universal human creativity.
TheArtStory: Joseph Beuys
John Hilliard
John Hilliard
John Hilliard
John Hilliard is an English conceptual artist and professor. Hilliard is known for his exploration of photography as a medium, questioning its neutrality and effect on the outcome of a work. In each of his series Hilliard investigates how a change in the mechanics of photo taking can transform the subject; in Cause of Death (1970) four differently cropped prints of the same subject suggest a different cause of death.
John Hilliard
Arte Povera
Arte Povera
Arte Povera
Arte Povera - "poor art" or "impoverished art" - was the most influential European avant-garde of the 1960s. It numbered around a dozen Italian artists who often used commonplace materials that evoked a pre-industrial age - earth, rocks, clothing, paper and rope. The artists rejected abstract painting, and the references to modernity and technology in American Minimalism, and instead made sculpture which pointed to the past, and to experiences of locality.
TheArtStory: Arte Povera
Hamish Fulton
Hamish Fulton
Hamish Fulton
Hamish Fulton is a British artist best-known for his art based on walking. Called a "walking artist" Fulton takes walks and then transforms his experiences into art. His art is focused on the experience of the walk only, leaving no trace of his presence he does not take anything from the environment but his impressions, which he expresses in the form of texts and illustrations.
Hamish Fulton
Environmental Art
Environmental Art
Environmental Art
Environmental art refers to art dealing with ecological issues and/or the natural, such as the formal, the political, the historical, or the social context. In its early phases it was most associated with sculpture. The expanding term of environmental art also encompasses the scope of the urban landscape.
Environmental Art
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