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Barbara Kruger Photo

Barbara Kruger

American Designer, Graphic Artist, and Photographer

Movements and Styles: Conceptual Art, Feminist Art, Postmodernism

Born: January 26, 1945 - Newark, New Jersey

Barbara Kruger Timeline

Important Art by Barbara Kruger

The below artworks are the most important by Barbara Kruger - that both overview the major creative periods, and highlight the greatest achievements by the artist.

Untitled (You invest in the divinity of the masterpiece) (1982)
Artwork Images

Untitled (You invest in the divinity of the masterpiece) (1982)

Artwork description & Analysis: For this early work Kruger appropriated a portion of Michelangelo's renowned Sistine Chapel ceiling fresco notably the image of God's hand touching Adam's at the moment of creation. Through her use of the pronoun "You," Kruger directly addresses the viewer, inviting them to impose their own narrative on Michelangelo's masterpiece. The inference of personal responsibility in this work, however abstract, is a consistent theme through Kruger's work. She suggests that all of us are somehow implicated in a historical narrative; in this case, that of Western ideology, society, and art and as viewers of works of art, our opinion about the importance or role of the work of art is influenced, and sometimes even predetermined, by our own religious or philosophical, cultural, and ideological beliefs. Participating in postmodernism's ideal of questioning the progression and narrative of modernism, Kruger uses this piece to help the viewer acknowledge their role and agency when viewing art.

Photostat - Museum of Modern Art, New York

Untitled (Your body is a battleground) (1989)
Artwork Images

Untitled (Your body is a battleground) (1989)

Artwork description & Analysis: Kruger designed this print for the 1989 reproductive rights protest, the March for Women's Lives, in Washington, D.C. Utilizing her signature red, black, and white palette, the woman's face is split along a vertical axis, showing the photographic positive and negative sides, suggesting a highly simplified inner struggle of good versus evil. The political and social implications of the work are self evident, but Kruger emphasizes the directness of her sentiment by having her subject stare straight ahead through the print, frankly addressing the viewer through both her gaze and the words emblazoned across her face. The message unequivocally addresses the issue of the continued feminist struggle, connecting the physical body of female viewers to the contemporary conditions that necessitate the feminist protest. Kruger's slick graphic aesthetic and use of dramatic found imagery also place this work within the purview of postmodernism, tying it not only to contemporary critique, but to the larger social and cultural responses within the period.

Photo silkscreen on vinyl - The Broad Art Foundation, Santa Monica

Installation view of self-titled solo exhibition at Mary Boone Gallery, NYC (1991)
Artwork Images

Installation view of self-titled solo exhibition at Mary Boone Gallery, NYC (1991)

Artwork description & Analysis: For her third solo show at Mary Boone Gallery, Kruger transformed the gallery space into pure experience, with wall to wall and floor to ceiling displays in black, white, and red. Upon entering the gallery, visitors were greeted with the following text, printed in white letters on a vermillion background: "All that seemed beneath you is speaking to you now. All that seemed deaf hears you. All that seemed dumb knows what's on your mind. All that seemed blind sees through you." This confrontational epithet set the tone for the entire installation, which implicates the viewers in Kruger's critique of the dynamics of power in the early 1990s. Kruger used bold white text within a virtual sea of red, pitting a flood of language against billboard-sized images that collide on the walls. Two images of a child's screaming face confront the viewer with the phrase "All violence is the illustration of a pathetic stereotype," while a sensational image, tucked in the back room of the gallery, portrays a naked woman on a cross wearing a gas mask, emblazoned with the words, "It's our pleasure to disgust you," a brazen challenge aimed at the conservative elements of American society. The hostile tone of Kruger's language, as well as the nature of the entire installation, is intended to activate viewers' emotions in order to consider the circumstances that led Kruger to make such incisive statements. Her first foray into site-specific installation, this exhibition represented a major departure from her earlier two-dimensional work.

Photographic collage - Mary Boone Gallery, New York

Picture This (designed 1992-1994 constructed 1994-1997)
Artwork Images

Picture This (designed 1992-1994 constructed 1994-1997)

Artwork description & Analysis: Beginning in 1989, the North Carolina Museum of Art invited Kruger to collaborate with architects Henry Smith-Miller and Laurie Hawkinson and landscape architect Nicholas Quennell to create an installation for the museum's grounds that remains a focal point of the museum's sculpture park to this day. Situated around a stage and outdoor amphitheater, Kruger constructed a series of letters in varying media, spanning over 200 feet in length. The mere scale of this work represented something new for Kruger, who up until this point had only worked in photography, collage, and indoor installation. The text, coupled with its use of a declarative invitation to consider the institution and its surroundings and the inherent multi-media nature demonstrate how Kruger continued to expand and diversify her oeuvre throughout her career.

Site-specific landscape installation - North Carolina Museum of Art, Raleigh, NC

Power Pleasure Desire Disgust (1997)
Artwork Images

Power Pleasure Desire Disgust (1997)

Artwork description & Analysis: This all black-and-white multi-media installation was the inaugural show at Deitch Projects' Wooster Street space in New York City. Unlike previous installations of similar scale and theme, Kruger incorporated audio and moving pictures, so that visitors were bombarded with constantly shifting text, images, and sounds. After entering the gallery, the viewer encountered images and words projected onto the floors and walls, changing every eight seconds in intervals of twelve. Within this sensorial cacophony, Kruger placed three video close-ups of talking heads on monitors at the end of three separate twenty-two foot-long tunnels. The heads were clearly visible from the gallery entrance, but the voices only became clearer as the viewer approached the darkened passageways, where they were confronted with abbreviated monologues about love, hate, power, and sex. This exercise in extended viewing and experiential art was proof that socially conscious art can be didactic and effective at the same time.

Multi-media sound, video, and photomontage installation - Deitch Projects, New York

It's all about me, I mean you, I mean me (2010)
Artwork Images

It's all about me, I mean you, I mean me (2010)

Artwork description & Analysis: Kruger's work in magazine graphic design has always informed her art, while the nature and context of her art has shifted drastically. Recently, Kruger has returned to her roots, with a number of magazine covers graced with original design layouts by the artist, like this cover of W magazine featuring Kim Kardashian. The cover features the artist's signature use of the Futura font on a red background emblazoned across an image. However, the image is not an anonymous found picture, but a professional photograph of a celebrity, created exclusively for this cover. The blatant and glorified nudity of the subject is cleverly juxtaposed with a tripartite tagline by Kruger, which could easily be construed as either a scathing critique of Kardashian's self-serving celebrity or a passionate declaration by Kardashian herself. This work exemplifies Kruger's success within the contemporary art world; her style is so recognizable that she has been able to cross back into the commercial world of graphic design but on her own terms.

Photographic collage - W Magazine, New York



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Barbara Kruger Photo

Related Art and Artists

Tips For Artists Who Want To Sell (1966 - 1968)

Tips For Artists Who Want To Sell (1966 - 1968)

Artist: John Baldessari

Artwork description & Analysis: While teaching at a night school in the University of California, Baldessari came upon a sheet left in a classroom that dispensed advice to artists. It led to a number of works, of which Tips For Artists Who Want To Sell is an important example. Tips is one of his breakthrough works: it abandons familiar imagery, adopts language as its vehicle, and slyly suggests that behind some supposedly great art may be merely a series of cynical ploys. In 1970, Baldessari burned many of his early paintings as part of a work titled Cremation Project, but he saved works such as these, done after 1966, in which he offered satirical checklists of what to include in a painting if it is to sell. A clear stab at the art market, he uses humor to poke fun at the absurdity of traditional art and "how-to" art instruction manuals. Its comedy also derives from the contrast of his simple advice with the grandeur of the Abstract Expressionist painting that had recently dominated the American art market.

Acrylic on canvas. © John Baldessari - The Broad Art Foundation, Santa Monica

How to Explain Pictures to a Dead Hare (1965)
Artwork Images

How to Explain Pictures to a Dead Hare (1965)

Artist: Joseph Beuys

Artwork description & Analysis: In this performance piece, Beuys could be viewed - his head and face covered in honey and gold leaf - through a gallery's windows, a slab of iron tied to one boot, a felt pad to the other, as the artist cradled a dead hare. As though carrying out a strange music (if not some macabre bedtime story), Beuys frequently whispered things to the animal carcass about his own drawings hanging on the walls around him. Beuys would periodically vary the bleak rhythm of this scenario by walking around the cramped space, one footstep muffled by the felt, the other amplified by the iron. Every item in the room - a wilting fir tree, the honey, the felt, and the fifty-dollars-worth of gold leaf - was chosen specifically for both its symbolic potential as well as its literal significance: honey for life, gold for wealth, hare as death, metal as conductor of invisible energies, felt as protection, and so forth. As for most of his subsequent installations and performance work, Beuys had created a new visual syntax not only for himself, but for all conceptual art that might follow him.

Gold leaf, honey, dead hare, felt pad, iron, fir tree, miscellaneous drawings and clothing items - Galerie Schmela, Dresden, Germany

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Edited and published by The Art Story Contributors
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