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Artists Jeff Koons
Jeff Koons Photo

Jeff Koons

American Painter, Illustrator, Sculptor

Movement: Neo Pop Art

Born: January 21, 1955 - York, Pennsylvania

Jeff Koons Timeline


"I believe that art has been a vehicle for me that's been about enlightenment and expanding my own parameters, to give me courage to exercise the freedom that I have in life."
Jeff Koons
"Art has this ability to allow you to connect back through history in the same way that biology does. I'm always looking for source material."
Jeff Koons
"Art's a very metaphysical activity. It's something that enriches the parameters of your life, the possibilities of being, and you touch transcendence and you change your life. And you want to change the life of others, too. That's why people are involved with art."
Jeff Koons
"I've always enjoyed feeling a connection to the avant-garde, such as Dada and surrealism and pop art. The only thing the artist can do is be honest with themselves and make the art they want to make. That's what I've always done."
Jeff Koons
"I believe that my art gets across the point that I'm in this morality theater trying to help the underdog, and I'm speaking socially here, showing concern and making psychological and philosophical statements for the underdog."
Jeff Koons
"Art was something I could do better. It gave me a sense of self."
Jeff Koons
"I try to be a truthful artist and I try to show a level of courage. I enjoy that. I'm a messenger."
Jeff Koons
"If cheap cookie jars could become treasures in the 1980s, then how much more the work of the very egregious Jeff Koons, a former bond trader, whose ambitions took him right through kitsch and out the other side into a vulgarity so syrupy, gross, and numbing, that collectors felt challenged by it."
Art Historian Robert Hughes

"The job of the artist is to make a gesture and really show people what their potential is. It's not about the object, and it's not about the image; it's about the viewer. That's where the art happens."


Jeff Koons derives inspiration from things you might find at a yard sale: inflatable plastic toys, vacuum cleaners, porcelain trinkets and other items not typically considered fine art. He is the epitome of Neo-Pop, a 1980s movement that looked to earlier Pop artists, particularly Warhol, for inspiration. His steel Balloon Dog sculptures, probably his best-known works, transpose an ephemeral childhood memory into an enduring form. His work looks cheap, but is expensive, an ingenious reversal of economic logic that forms the basis for his stunning commercial success. Rather than offending the art snob, Koons has challenged top collectors to revise their notions of what fine art looks like. This is a brilliant marketing strategy. His work brings the highest prices of any living artist on the auction market. Evidence of a turning point in art history, Koons is a new kind of genius in art. A significant departure from the modernist ideal of the misunderstood visionary, Koons is the anti-modernist, a shrewd, self-proclaimed crowd-pleaser, and avid promoter of his own work.

Key Ideas

With greater showmanship, and on a grander scale, than any artist before him, Koons presents us with the clash between high art and popular culture.
Koons is essentially a late-20th-century incarnation of Marcel Duchamp. Like the French Conceptual artist who thought America's bridges and plumbing her finest artworks, Koons strips industrially-made objects of their practical purpose and re-presents them as art.
His sculptures are not merely conceptual, but aesthetic, in ways that challenge us, especially those of us accustomed to fine art. Kitsch and high culture, religion and eroticism, weightlessness and mass are among the apparent opposites that mix and mingle in his work.
Koons was among the first American artists to cast himself as a populist. In the rising economy of the 1980s, his message resonated with audiences sick of art world elitism. His outspoken distaste for abstract art, already fading from fashion, vaulted him into the limelight.
Somewhat paradoxically, his embrace of bad taste has won over the most discerning and ostensibly elitist audiences. By collecting Koons, collectors and museums show that they can take a joke.

Most Important Art

Jeff Koons Famous Art

New Hoover Convertibles Green, Blue; New Hoover Convertibles Green, Blue; Double Decker (1981-1987)

In Koons' work, the vacuum cleaner is an important recurring symbol. In conversations about it, he has called attention to its anthropomorphic and androgynous qualities, almost as if it were a totemic figure. "It is a breathing machine" he once stated, which "displays both male and female sexuality. It has orifices and phallic attachments." In a series entitled "The New," Koons explores America's fetishization of pristine commodities and their relationship to notions of sexuality, innocence, and cleanliness. Here, four commercial vacuum cleaners housed in a monolithic plexiglass vitrine are lit from below with fluorescent lights. Duchamp's original 'readymades', especially his presentation of a urinal in 1919 as art, are obvious precedents for this work. Whereas Duchamp turned the urinal on its head and signed it (R. Mutt), however, Koons one-ups Duchamp, giving us no visible sign of his involvement in the work. The categorization of New Hoover Convertibles as art transforms the retail display into a shrine to commerce. As "art," it evokes a host of miraculous events depicted by artists, from the raising of Lazurus to the Resurrection of Christ. We are reminded of the ways in which modern life has been transformed by living, "breathing machines." Whether Koons is celebrating or condemning this transformation is an open question. Koons' ability to put his finger on the pulse of such moral ambiguities, without telling the viewer what to think, is perhaps his greatest strength as an artist.
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Jeff Koons Artworks in Focus:


Early Life

Jeff Koons Biography

Born in Pennsylvania on the first day of 1955, by the age of eight years old, he had begun creating replicas of Old Master paintings, which he signed 'Jeffrey Koons' and sold at his father's antique shop. After graduating from high school, he enrolled at the Maryland Institute College of Art in Baltimore, where he painted neo-surrealist dreamscapes heavily inspired by his hero Salvador Dali.

In 1974, Koons viewed an exhibition at the Whitney Museum of American Art in New York City by the Chicago Imagist Jim Nutt, which came to represent a watershed moment in his life and career. On the basis of that show, he transferred to Chicago, in order to work with Nutt and other Chicago Imagist teachers, among them Karl Wirsum and Ed Paschke. After studying directly under Paschke in Chicago for a year, Koons returned to the Maryland Institute College of Art, where he graduated with a B.F.A in 1976. He was awarded an honorary degree from the Chicago Institute of Art some 30 years later.

In 1977, after graduating from college, Koons moved to Manhattan and took a job selling memberships at the Museum of Modern Art. In New York City, he explored the New Wave and Punk music scenes at the now legendary clubs CBGB and the Mudd Club, and mingled with David Salle and Julian Schnabel, slightly older artists with an established reputation in New York. It was during this period that he began producing the first inflatable sculptures, which would become a hallmark of his practice.

In 1980, Koons left MoMA and began selling stocks and mutual funds for the First Investors Corporation, building on his background in sales. This financed the body of work that would constitute The New series. In 1980, he debuted the series in the New Museum's storefront window on 14th Street in Lower Manhattan, which included three illuminated vacuum cleaners encased in plexiglass vitrines. Koons received almost instantaneous critical acclaim for his work. Only three years after this public debut, critic Roberta Smith declared him one "of the strangest and most unique of contemporary artists."

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Jeff Koons Biography Continues

Mature Work

Jeff Koons Photo

The New Series garnered Koons significant critical attention throughout the early 1980s, but it was not until 1986 that he achieved major media traction, when he - along with fellow artists Peter Halley, Ashley Bickerton, and Meyer Vaisman - made the much publicized jump from International With Monument gallery to the esteemed Sonnabend Gallery, collectively acquiring the title "The Hot Four" on the cover of New York Magazine. Two years later, Koons unveiled the Banality series which catapulted him to international fame. The series, featuring sculptural amalgamations of stuffed animals, plush toys and magazine imagery among other inspirations, debuted nearly simultaneously at Sonnabend Gallery in New York, Max Hetzler in Cologne and Donald Young in Chicago. Having been featured in the pages of Time Magazine and on the cover of the Wall Street Journal, Koons' renown grew exponentially when, a year later, he released his most controversial series to date, Made in Heaven, consisting of monumental photographs depicting him nude and in sexually explicit acts with his then girlfriend, soon-to-be wife Ilona Staler, the famed Italian porn star also known as "La Ciccolina." Brazenly flouting conventions of good taste, the series elicited an overwhelmingly condemnatory response from critics and the public alike, threatening to dethrone Koons from art world preeminence. Ultimately, however, Made in Heaven proved the adage that any publicity is good publicity. News from Missouri to Helsinki covered Koons' outrageous suite of pictures, and his subsequent engagement to Staler. Koons retained his title as a bona fide art star.

From then on Koons' reputation has continued to grow. Riding the wave of interest and rising values of contemporary art, his work in recent decades has explored themes related to sexuality, kitsch, celebrity, consumerism, and childhood. Series such as Hulk Elvis, Gazing Ball, and Balloon Dog resonate with critics and the public alike. He remains one of the most celebrated figures in contemporary art.


Jeff Koons Portrait

Since the 1980s, Koons has been a prevalent influence on contemporary artists who explore commercialism, advertising strategies, Duchampian conceptualism and pop aesthetics. His career is fascinating to contrast with that of West Coast artist Mike Kelley, an artist who used similar materials, but whose sculptural experiments with stuffed animals, balloons and other expressions of childhood merriment, are ultimately about dejection and angst. The influence of Koons is manifest in the work of a panoply of artists. Canonized figures such as Mike Kelley, and Isa Gentzken, and emerging art stars such as Darren Bader and Nick Darmstaedter are among those artists who have been impacted by his work. In his ability to identify themes that resonate with and captivate the public, he is most comparable to Damien Hirst, his slightly younger contemporary whose art star status in England parallels Koons' in the U.S. Hirst's world famous shark suspended in a tank of formaldehyde is especially indebted to Koon's early work. Koons' forays into advertising laid the groundwork for Hank Willis, who has delved more deeply into the racial implications of contemporary marketing imagery.

Influences and Connections

Influences on Artist
Artists, Friends, Movements
Influenced by Artist
Artists, Friends, Movements
Jeff Koons
Interactive chart with Jeff Koons's main influences, and the people and ideas that the artist influenced in turn.
View Influences Chart


Marcel DuchampMarcel Duchamp
Salvador DalíSalvador Dalí

Personal Contacts

David SalleDavid Salle
Julian SchnabelJulian Schnabel


Pop ArtPop Art

Influences on Artist
Jeff Koons
Jeff Koons
Years Worked: 1980 - present
Influenced by Artist


Mike KelleyMike Kelley
Damien HirstDamien Hirst

Personal Contacts

Peter HalleyPeter Halley
Ashley BickertonAshley Bickerton
Meyer VaismanMeyer Vaisman


Young British ArtistsYoung British Artists

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Content compiled and written by The Art Story Contributors

Edited and revised, with Synopsis and Key Ideas added by Ruth Epstein

" Artist Overview and Analysis". [Internet]. . TheArtStory.org
Content compiled and written by The Art Story Contributors
Edited and revised, with Synopsis and Key Ideas added by Ruth Epstein
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Useful Resources on Jeff Koons





The books and articles below constitute a bibliography of the sources used in the writing of this page. These also suggest some accessible resources for further research, especially ones that can be found and purchased via the internet.
Jeff Koons: A Retrospective

By Scott Rothkopf

Jeff Koons: Hulk Elvis

By Phillip Tinari

Jeff Koons

By Eckhard Schneider

Jeff Koons

By Eckhard Schneider and Katy Siegel

More Interesting Books about Jeff Koons
Jeff Koons, Beyond Heaven Recomended resource

16 September, 2013

Jeff Koons Talks to Al Jazeera Recomended resource

22 August, 2015

Jeff Koons Discusses Balloon Dog

2014, Vimeo

Jeff Koons Philosophy of Perfection - Interviewed in his Studio

June 16, 2014

More Interesting Videos with Jeff Koons
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