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Yves Klein Photo

Yves Klein

French Painter

Movement: Performance Art

Born: April 28, 1928 - Nice, France

Died: June 6, 1962 - Paris, France

Yves Klein Timeline

Quotes

"As I lay stretched upon the beach of Nice, I began to feel hatred for birds which flew back and forth across my blue sky, cloudless sky, because they tried to bore holes in my greatest and most beautiful work."
Yves Klein
"The imagination is the vehicle of sensibility. Transported by the imagination, we attain life, life itself, which is absolute art."
Yves Klein
"I was an extreme element of society who lived in space and who had no means of coming back to earth."
Yves Klein
"For me, each nuance of a color is in some way an individual, a being who is not only from the same race as the base color, but who definitely possesses a distinct character and personal soul."
Yves Klein
"My monochrome pictures are not my definite works, but the preparation for my works. They are the leftovers from the creative processes, the ashes. My pictures, after all, are only the title-deeds to my property which I have to produce when I am asked to prove that I am a proprietor."
Yves Klein

"The imagination is the vehicle of sensibility. Transported by the imagination, we attain life, life itself, which is absolute art."

Yves Klein Signature

Synopsis

Yves Klein was the most influential, prominent, and controversial French artist to emerge in the 1950s. He is remembered above all for his use of a single color, the rich shade of ultramarine that he made his own: International Klein Blue. But the success of his sadly short-lived career lay in attacking many of the ideas that underpinned the abstract painting that had been dominant in France since the end of the Second World War. For some critics he is a descendent of Marcel Duchamp, a prankster who lampooned settled understandings of painting and opened art up to new media. Others consider him as a descendant of earlier avant-garde artists such as Kazimir Malevich and Aleksander Rodchenko, who were also attracted to the monochrome. And even in the ways he used performance later on in his career, he is like many artists who rediscovered some of the tactics of earlier avant-gardes in the 1950s and '60s. Klein might also be compared to his contemporary Joseph Beuys, for, like Beuys, he embraced aspects of Romanticism and mysticism - Klein was intrigued by Eastern religion and Rosicrucianism, and was even influenced by judo. Also like Beuys, many have condemned him as an obscurantist and a charlatan: yet the brevity, wit, and seductive beauty of much of his work continues to inspire.

Key Ideas

The abstract painting that dominated French art in the 1950s was invariably premised on the notion that an artist could communicate with the viewer through the power of abstract form. But skeptics of modern, abstract art have always alleged that the viewers, like the faithful devotees of a false god, do more of the work than the artist, investing the forms with their own feelings rather than discovering the artist's. Viewed in this light, Klein's monochrome blue paintings might be read as a satire on abstract art, for not only do the pictures carry no motif, but Klein insisted there was nothing there at all, only "the void."
Klein's pictures may also be read in a contradictory fashion. He was genuinely fascinated by mystical ideas, by notions of the infinite, the undefinable, the absolute, and his use of a single rich and suggestive tone of blue might be seen as an attempt to free the viewer from all imposed ideas and let her mind soar. For, as Klein believed, lines in pictures were a form of "prison grating," and only color offered the path to freedom.
Throughout Klein's work, from his canvas monochromes to his later performances, there is a stress on immediate experience that reflects aspects of the Performance art movement of the 1960s. Although he was never specifically opposed to creating art objects, many of Klein's later works seem to want to abandon the object as a vehicle for art and instead find ways to more directly transmit ideas and experiences.

Most Important Art

Yves Klein Famous Art

Blue Monochrome (1957)

This is one of Klein's first monochromes featuring International Klein Blue. He reported that, at the age of nineteen, he looked up at the sky and realized the infinite, immaterial space surrounding the universe. To depict his vision, he chose to use only one color, a vibrant shade of ultramarine, which he later perfected for use with the aid of chemists. The painting contains no trace of line or imagery, encouraging the viewer to immerse herself in the color alone and to experience its evocations. Symbolic, perhaps, of the sky and the sea, it also had resonances in Klein's own religion, Catholicism, as not only a symbol of the Holy Ghost, but also as the shade traditionally used in the depiction of the Virgin Mary's robes in Renaissance paintings.
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Yves Klein Artworks in Focus:

Biography

Childhood

Yves Klein was born on April 28, 1928, in Nice, France, to an artistic family; his mother, Marie Raymond, was a leading figure in the Art Informel movement, while his father, Fred Klein, painted figures and landscapes characteristic of the Post-Impressionists. Although Klein grew up in a creative household, he received no formal artistic training. The family lived in Paris between 1930 and 1939, but spent the summer months with artist friends in Canges-ser-Mer where Klein was left in the care of his aunt, Rose Raymond. She provided him with stability and a pragmatic outlook, a stark contrast to his parents' free-spirited attitude. These differing viewpoints, combined with his parents' artistic conflicts between figurative and abstract work, eventually led Klein to reject line and severely restrict color in his early work.

Early Training

Between 1942 and 1946, Klein studied at the Ecole Nationale de la Marine Marchand and the Ecole Nationale des Langues. During this time he became close friends with a young poet named Claude Pascal and a promising sculptor named Arman Fernandez. Together they shared common interests of judo (a modern martial art), jazz music, esoteric literature, and Eastern religions.

Yves Klein Biography

Klein's major artistic breakthrough occurred in 1947 while lying on a beach with Pascal and Arman. In the apocryphal account, the three friends divided the universe between themselves: Arman claimed the materiality of the earth, Pascal appropriated language and words, and Klein possessed "the void," or the planet empty of all matter. Klein embarked on a "realistic-imaginative" daydream into the depths of the universe, where he claimed to have inscribed his name in the sky. The symbolic gesture was a flashpoint in Klein's artistic pursuit to grapple with what he defined as the infinite.

Mature Period

The enlightening realization of the void in the sky led Klein to experiment in painting, performance, and music. In 1949, he created The Monotone-Silence Symphony, a piece containing a single chord sustained for twenty minutes followed by twenty minutes of meditative silence. The composition symbolized the sound pitch emitted from the monochrome blue sky (or "the void"), emphasizing universal harmony.

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Yves Klein Biography Continues

He lived in London with Pascal from 1948 to 1952, where he began to assist in the London frame shop of Robert Savage, learning gilding and basic painting techniques using raw pigments. In 1953, Klein traveled to Japan where he received a black belt in judo at the Kodokan Institute in Tokyo. There, he had a second private exhibition of monochromatic paintings and proclaimed The Manifesto of the Monochrome, in which he declared monochrome to be an "open window to freedom, as the possibility of being immersed in the immeasurable existence of color." Klein was determined to evoke emotions and sensations independent of line, rendered objects, or abstracted symbols, believing the monochromatic surface released the painting from materiality through the totality of pure pigment.

In 1956, Klein established himself in the Paris art scene with a controversial exhibition at the Galerie Colette Allendy titled Yves: Propositions Monochromes. Twenty monochromatic paintings were displayed, rendered in tones of blue, red, yellow, and orange. Klein received a disappointing reaction from the public, who viewed the exhibition as a new form of interior abstraction rather than an infinite journey into the immateriality of the surface. But Pierre Restany, an emerging French critic, immediately understood the sublime power of Klein's monochrome and supported him in expressing his viewpoint. After considering the public's misinterpretation at the Galerie Colette Allendy, Klein decided to push the monochrome a step further by focusing on his favorite color, blue.

Late Period

In 1956, with the assistance of a chemical technician, Klein succeeded in suspending his favorite ultramarine pigment in petroleum extracts, which allowed the pigment to maintain its brilliance and something of its powdery texture without dulling. He named the substance International Klein Blue (IKB). This marked the beginning of Klein's Blue Period, in which he produced several monochromatic paintings in the signature color, titling each International Klein Blue, combined with a serial number. Klein believed IKB was the perfect instrument with which to elaborate his belief in spiritual powers and the immaterial; ultramarine is the traditional symbolic color of the Holy Ghost in Christian religion and also evokes the expanse of the infinite sky and the depth of the oceans. In 1957, Klein exhibited 11 evenly spaced, vibrant IKB paintings at the Gallery Apollinaire in Milan. The paintings were displayed on poles, identical in size and structure but each bearing a different price, something that for Klein suggested the irrelevance of the material objects themselves and the importance instead of the viewer's response.

Klein took the concept of the immaterial a step further when he removed everything with the exception of an oversized cabinet from the Iris Clert Gallery in 1958. He believed that in emptying the gallery "the invisible [would] become effective through the perceptible." He titled the piece Le Vide (The Void), and created an intricate entrance ritual for the opening night.

Yves Klein with painted model

In 1960, Klein renounced personal attachment to the picture plane by applying IKB with paint rollers and female models in a series dubbed the Anthropométries, the first of which was exhibited as a performance piece at the Galerie Internationale d'Art Contemporain in Paris. Nude female models slathered themselves in IKB and pressed their bodies against the gallery walls to create imprints. During this time, Klein became increasingly fascinated with natural elements and would incorporate fire, water, sea sponges, and gravel into his canvases and sculptures. This resulted in a series of fire paintings, monochromatic relief paintings, and IKB sculptures that expressed cosmological ideas of infinite space.

Klein received a poor response after he exhibited at the Leo Castelli Gallery in New York in 1961, where his paintings failed to sell, and he responded with the Chelsea Hotel Manifesto (1961) in which he explained his ideas. In 1962, he married artist Rotraut Uecker, which was several months before he died of a heart attack at the terribly young age of 34.


Legacy

Yves Klein Photo

In France, Yves Klein's quirky perception of reality was a significant forerunner of Nouveau Réalisme, a French strain of Pop art that was driven by the critic Pierre Restany, and which included Arman Fernandez, Martial Raysse, César Baldaccini, and Daniel Spoerri. His painting represents one of the most important responses to the monochrome in the twentieth century and has joined the contributions of others such as Kasimir Malevich and Aleksander Rodchenko in defining the mode. Although, like similarly conceptual forerunners such as Marcel Duchamp, he has had few direct ancestors, his eccentric blend of mystical and materialist attitudes - his interest in the ineffable, and in the mechanics of the art market - has inspired many to believe that a lifetime as an artist can consist of all kinds of activity, from writing to painting to performing.

Influences and Connections

Influences on artist

Artists, Friends, Movements

Influenced by artist

Artists, Friends, Movements

Yves Klein
Interactive chart with Yves Klein's main influences, and the people and ideas that the artist influenced in turn.
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View Influences Chart

Artists

Eugène DelacroixEugène Delacroix
Vincent van GoghVincent van Gogh
Kazimir MalevichKazimir Malevich
Piet MondrianPiet Mondrian
Wassily KandinskyWassily Kandinsky

Friends

Pierre RestanyPierre Restany
Claude PascalClaude Pascal
Max HeindelMax Heindel

Movements

Post-ImpressionismPost-Impressionism
Art InformelArt Informel
DadaDada
Yves Klein
Yves Klein
Years Worked: 1955 - 1962

Artists

Jean TinguelyJean Tinguely
Raymond HainsRaymond Hains
John CageJohn Cage

Friends

Pierre RestanyPierre Restany
ArmanArman
Claude PascalClaude Pascal
Thomas McEvilleyThomas McEvilley
Dino BuzzatiDino Buzzati

Movements

Monochrome PaintingMonochrome Painting
Neo-DadaNeo-Dada
Performance ArtPerformance Art

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Content compiled and written by Larissa Borteh

Edited and published by The Art Story Contributors

" Artist Overview and Analysis". [Internet]. . TheArtStory.org
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Useful Resources on Yves Klein

Videos

Books

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The books and articles below constitute a bibliography of the sources used in the writing of this page. These also suggest some accessible resources for further research, especially ones that can be found and purchased via the internet.
Yves Klein: With the Void, Full Powers Recomended resource

By Kerry Brougher, Philippe Vergne, Klaus Ottmann, Yves Klein

Yves Klein: 1928-1962

By Hannah Weitemeier

Yves Klein By Himself

By Klaus Ottmann, Yves Klein

Yves Klein: Works, Writings, Interviews

By Klaus Ottmann, Yves Klein

More Interesting Books about Yves Klein
True Blue Recomended resource

By Peter Schjeldahl
The New Yorker
June 28, 2010

Yves Klein: A Master of Blue Recomended resource

By Richard Lacayo
TIME Magazine
June 21, 2010

Blake Gopnik reviews 'Yves Klein: With the Void, Full Powers' at the Hirshhorn

By Blake Gopnik
The Washington Post
May 25, 2010

Real Immaterial: Superstudio and Yves Klein

By Kati Rubinyi, Ewan Branda
X-TRA Contemporary Art Quarterly
Fall 2004

More Interesting Articles about Yves Klein

in pop culture

Trailer: featured in Mondo Cane 1962

Controversial film that included a reenactment of Yves Klein's Anthropométries

Listen: Yves Klein Blue

Yves Klein Blue
Indie rock band

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