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Artists Allan Kaprow
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Allan Kaprow

American Performance Artist and Theoretician

Movements and Styles: Happenings, Performance Art

Born: August 23, 1927 - Atlantic City, New Jersey

Died: April 5, 2006 - Encinitas, California

Allan Kaprow Timeline


"Not only does art become life, but life refuses to be itself."
Allan Kaprow
"Once the task of the artist was to make good art; now it is to avoid making art of any kind."
Allan Kaprow
"I am convinced that painting is a bore. So is music and literature. What doesn't bore me is the total destruction of ideas that have any discipline. Instead of painting, move your arms; instead of music, make noise. I'm giving up painting and all the arts by doing everything and anything."
Allan Kaprow
"You reveal something and its oddness by removing it from its normal usage."
Allan Kaprow
"Experimental art is the one kind of art that can affirm and deny art at the same time. It's the one kind of art that can claim as value no value, ... the one caveat is that it must be called art."
Allan Kaprow
"There are two directions in which the legacy could go. One is to continue into and develop an action kind of painting, which was what he was doing, and the other was to take advantage of the action itself, implicit as a kind of dance ritual."
Kaprow writing on Pollock

"The integration of all elements -- environment, constructed sections, time, space, and people -- has been my main technical problem..."

Allan Kaprow Signature


Allan Kaprow was a pivotal figure in the shifting art world of the 1960s; his "happenings," a form of spontaneous, non-linear action, revolutionized the practice of performance art. While Kaprow began as a painter, by the mid 1950s his interest turned to the theoretical, based primarily on the shifting concepts of space as subjectively experienced by the viewer. Kaprow emerged from the group of artists known as the Rutgers Group, based out of Rutgers University where Kaprow taught art history and studio art. Kaprow was among the many artists and critics who focused on an intellectual and theorized view of art, rejecting the monumental nature of Abstract Expressionist works and instead focusing on the act of their production. In particular, his influential essay, "The Legacy of Jackson Pollock," (1956), called for an end to craftsmanship and permanence in art and instead demanded that artists shift their attention to "non-concrete," or ephemeral, modes of production.

Key Ideas

Kaprow's happenings changed the definition of the art object. "Art" was no longer an object to be viewed hanging on a wall or set on a pedestal; rather, it could now be anything at all, including movement, sound, and even scent. Kaprow stated, "The everyday world is the most astonishing inspiration conceivable. A walk down 14th Street is more amazing than any masterpiece of art."
Kaprow was very clear that his works were connected with art and not theater. He stressed that his happenings were in the same category as the action painting of Abstract Expressionists and not with scripted scenes involving actors playing parts. Kaprow's pieces involved spaces he physically altered, with sights and sounds as deliberately composed as any canvas by Pollock or Rothko.
Kaprow rebelled against the prescriptions of Clement Greenberg, both in his art and in his writings: formal aesthetics, Kaprow believed, were no longer relevant when the art left the canvas. Kaprow's work was based on an "aesthetic of regular experience," a transient and momentary experience felt by the viewer being as significant as a painting on canvas.

Most Important Art

Allan Kaprow Famous Art

Yard (1961)

Kaprow created Yard for Hauser & Wirth's opening New York show, Environment - Situations - Spaces. In this seminal work he recreated a junkyard, in the then Martha Jackson Gallery's backyard, creating an immersive environment with which the audience interacted. This work contained a high element of play, but within the boundaries Kaprow had prefixed. The piece illustrates sculpture's expansion in scale and the increasingly blurred boundaries between a "life like" and an "art like" art. In Kaprow's determination, there was no distinction between the viewer and the artwork; the viewer became part of the piece.
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Allan Kaprow Artworks in Focus:



Allan Kaprow was born in 1927 in New Jersey. During his early years, he experienced chronic illness that forced him to move from New York to Tuscon, Arizona where he spent the rest of his childhood. There, separated from his Jewish, middle class roots, he experienced life on a ranch, giving him a sense of the communal activity that came to dominate his later artistic career. Ill and often bed-bound, Kaprow began to develop an interest in arts and crafts, and eventually returned to New York to attend New York University and study Philosophy and Art History.

Early Training

Allan Kaprow Biography

Allan Kaprow's early artistic career was as an Abstract Expressionists; he trained at The New York School under Hans Hoffman from 1947-48. Developing a dynamic and expressive style, Kaprow had absorbed the action painting techniques of Pollock and the others, finding meaning in the physical ("action") relationship between the artist and his work. Moving from these studies to a major in Art History and Philosophy (with an M.A. thesis on Mondrian) under eminent historian and critic Meyer Schapiro, Kaprow began to construct action collages and assemblages with found objects. The references to everyday experience become an increasing interest to Kaprow, reviving the earlier motives of Dada and Futurist movements. Philosopher John Dewey's seminal work, "Art and Life" had a profound influence on Kaprow, leading him to experiment with notions of scale and with the incorporation of aural elements. The works Kaprow was producing at this time expanded to form environments - a more direct, sensory experience for the audience. In 1958, Kaprow wrote "The Legacy of Jackson Pollock," an insightful and influential essay where Kaprow pronounced Pollock as responsible for pioneering the expansion of art beyond the frame and into the realm of human experience. This essay also marked the start of Kaprow's prolific art-writing career.

Mature Period

Allan Kaprow Image

Since 1955, Kaprow and other young artists from the Hoffman school had established and exhibited at the Hansa Gallery, an emerging institution on the New York art scene, where eventually Kaprow's notorious performative experiments took place. At the same time, Kaprow was teaching art history at Rutgers and attending classes of experimental musician, John Cage, along with George Brecht, Al Hansen, and La Monte Young. These young artists were becoming increasingly critical of the Abstract Expressionists for their neglect of experiential reference in their work. At this point, Kaprow began to adopt new methods of audience participation, incorporating performative and aural elements to create events experienced in real time. In this way Kaprow eliminated the subjects, structures, and narratives of conventional art practice. His practice became known as "the happening", a revolutionary element of the New York avant-garde of the 1960s. The happening, while spontaneous, has certain particularities. It could be performed only once, but in a range of guises: to a small audience in a loft or cellar, or as a larger scale public event on the street. The materials used were often perishable, giving the performance an ephemeral quality that denounced traditional preservation of the art object. Kaprow's ideas were not unique - the Fluxus movement had been formed by his contemporaries and the Gutai Group and artist Yves Klein were working internationally with a similar aim, as was John Cage. Kaprow was distinct in his choice to work alone, and in the substantial body of writing emerging around his events. While Cage's motives were to relinquish artistic authority to his participants, Kaprow delivered his vision through viewer involvement. He was notable for his relentless pursuit of lowbrow subject matter - the everyday processes, such as brushing one's teeth - and increasingly, the audience was eliminated, involving only participants. Throughout the 1960's, the artist led happenings in sites of industry and commerce, in a further shift from the traditional art context.

Late Period

By the end of the 1960s, Kaprow began to disassociate himself from the term happening, which he saw as being exploited by the mainstream media. He started to follow a more private, introspective path, influenced by his studies in Zen Buddhism. He concentrated on creating intimate events he termed Activities. Working mainly with individuals or couples, these were now accompanied with an instruction booklet (gradually, Kaprow was eliminating the need for his presence in his work) and took place in increasingly domestic settings. Conversely, his acclaimed reputation had led to Kaprow retrospectives in galleries around the world. These exhibitions confronted the problem of displaying a vast body of work that fundamentally rejects the art environment and for which there is no lasting physical trace. As a solution to the lack of art object, the exhibitions were constructed from Kaprow's writing, archival photographs, the recollections of his participants, and the reinventions of his most important happenings. In 2001, he published his only book The Blurring of Art and Life, a compilation of the essays he had produced over the last five decades. Kaprow continued to teach until 1993 and was working on a major retrospective when he died in 2006.

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Allan Kaprow Biography Continues


Allan Kaprow Portrait

Kaprow presents a contradictory portrait; an artist seeking the direct and ephemeral relations between art, the artist, and the audience achieved in the "here and now" of everyday life, and a deep and prolific thinker, teacher and writer who meticulously planned and theorized every instantiation of his work. His lifelong quest to "unart" art practice had a profound and lasting impact on his contemporaries and on artists since, paving the way for Pop art, Conceptual art, Minimalism and new genre public art of subsequent decades. The embodied experience of the environment and the performative and real-time elements of happenings foreshadowed the Installation and Performance art common in contemporary practice, paving the way for artists like Vito Acconci, Suzanne Lacy, and Marina Abramovic.

Influences and Connections

Influences on Artist
Artists, Friends, Movements
Influenced by Artist
Artists, Friends, Movements
Allan Kaprow
Interactive chart with Allan Kaprow's main influences, and the people and ideas that the artist influenced in turn.
View Influences Chart


Marcel DuchampMarcel Duchamp
Filippo Tommaso MarinettiFilippo Tommaso Marinetti
Piet MondrianPiet Mondrian
Yves KleinYves Klein
Jackson PollockJackson Pollock

Personal Contacts

Hans HofmannHans Hofmann
Meyer SchapiroMeyer Schapiro
John CageJohn Cage


Abstract ExpressionismAbstract Expressionism

Influences on Artist
Allan Kaprow
Allan Kaprow
Years Worked: 1927 - 2006
Influenced by Artist


Dick HigginsDick Higgins
Yoko OnoYoko Ono
Claes OldenburgClaes Oldenburg
Roy LichtensteinRoy Lichtenstein
Jim DineJim Dine

Personal Contacts

Willem de KooningWillem de Kooning
George SegalGeorge Segal


Pop ArtPop Art
Conceptual ArtConceptual Art
Installation ArtInstallation Art
Performance ArtPerformance Art

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Content compiled and written by Sarah Jenkins

Edited and published by The Art Story Contributors

" Artist Overview and Analysis". [Internet]. . TheArtStory.org
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Useful Resources on Allan Kaprow





The books and articles below constitute a bibliography of the sources used in the writing of this page. These also suggest some accessible resources for further research, especially ones that can be found and purchased via the internet.


Experiments in the Everyday: Allan Kaprow and Robert Watts - Events, Objects, Documents Recomended resource

By Benjamin H. D. Buchloh, Judith F. Rodenbeck

Childsplay: The Art of Allan Kaprow

By Jeff Kelley

Allan Kaprow: Art as Life

By Alex Potts

18 Happenings in 6 Parts Recomended resource

By Andre Lepeke, Eva Meyer-Hermann, Stephanie Rosenthal

More Interesting Books about Allan Kaprow
Alan Kaprow, the Happener

By Robert C. Morgan, Wolf Kahn and Irving Sandler
The Brooklyn Rail
May 2006

Framed Space: Allan Kaprow and the Spread of Painting

By William Kaizen, Grey Room
Fall 2003

Allan Kaprow Recomended resource

By Oliver Debroise
Frieze Magazine
September 2008

Allan Kaprow, Creator of Artistic "Happenings" Dies at 78

By Holland Carter
New York Times
April 10, 2006

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