American Painter and Printmaker
Born: May 15, 1930 - Augusta, Georgia
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|The History and Use-case of Modern Art|
"I think a painting should include more experience than simply intended statement."
The reverberations of the work of Jasper Johns affected nearly every artistic movement from the 1950s through the present day. Johns engaged with modernist precedents like the original Dada movement and Abstract Expressionism in order to actively refute the hierarchy of modernism that reduced the aesthetic experience to the distinct material qualities of the medium and removed it from the viewer's life. He did so by initiating a dialogue with the viewer and their cultural context through his artistic exploration of how people see the things around them. By representing common objects and images in the realm of fine art, Johns broke down the boundaries traditionally separating fine art and everyday life. He effectively laid the foundation for the Pop Art movement's aesthetic embrace of commodity culture with his playfully subversive appropriation of common signs and products. Johns' exploration of semiotics and perception also set the stage for both the Conceptual art movement and the Postmodern movement of the following decades, while his multimedia collaborations with John Cage, Robert Rauschenberg, and Merce Cunningham ushered in the dominance of the performance art movement in the 1960s and 1970s.
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This, Johns' first major work, broke from the Abstract Expressionist precedent of non-objective painting with his representation of a recognizable everyday object - the American flag. Johns built the flag from a dynamic surface made up of shreds of newspaper dipped in encaustic - with snippets of text still visible through the wax - rather than oil paint applied to the canvas with a brush. As the molten, pigmented wax cooled, it fixed the scraps of newspaper in visually distinct marks that evoked the gestural brushwork of the Abstract Expressionists of the previous decade. The frozen encaustic embodied Johns' interest in semiotics by quoting the "brushstroke" of the action painters as a symbol for artistic expression, rather than a direct mode of expression, as part of his career-long investigation into "how we see and why we see the way we do."
The symbol of the American flag, to this day, carries a host of connotations and meanings that shift from individual to individual, making it the ideal subject for Johns' initial foray into visually exploring the "things the mind already knows." He intentionally blurred the lines between high art and everyday life with his choice of seemingly mundane subject matter. Johns painted Flag in the context of the McCarthy witch-hunts in Cold War America. Then and now, some viewers will read national pride or freedom in the image, while others only see imperialism or oppression. Johns was one of the first artists to present viewers with the dichotomies embedded in the American flag. Johns referred to his paintings as "facts" and did not provide predetermined interpretations of his work; when critics asked Johns if the work was a painted flag, or a flag painting, he said it was both. As with other Neo-Dada works, the meaning of the artwork is determined by the viewer, not the artist.
Encaustic, oil, and collage on fabric mounted on plywood - The Museum of Modern Art, New York
Born in 1930 in Augusta, Georgia, Jasper Johns grew up in rural South Carolina and lived with his paternal grandparents after his parents divorced when he was only a toddler. The paintings of his deceased grandmother, hung in his grandfather's house where he lived until the age of nine, provided his only exposure to art in his childhood. Johns began drawing at a very young age, with a vague intention of wanting to become an artist, but only pursued an official art education in college. He described his childhood desire to become an artist, stating, "I really didn't know what that meant. I think I thought it meant that I would be in a situation different than the one that I was in." Johns moved in with his Aunt Gladys for a few years in his adolescence during which she taught him, and two other students, in a one-room schoolhouse. Eventually Johns reunited with his re-married mother, and graduated as the valedictorian of his class at his high school in Sumter, South Carolina.
After high school, Johns spent three semesters at the University of South Carolina, starting in 1947. Urged by his teachers to study in New York, he moved north and spent one semester at the Parsons School of Design in 1948. However, Parsons was not the ideal fit for Johns, and he left the school, rendering him eligible for the draft. In 1951, he was drafted into the army and spent two years in service during the Korean War at Fort Jackson, South Carolina, and in Sendai, Japan. Upon returning to New York after an honorable discharge from the army in 1953, Johns met Robert Rauschenberg, who ushered him into the art scene there. The two artists shared an intense relationship, both romantic and artistic, from 1954 to 1961. Johns noted that he "learned what an artist was from watching [Rauschenberg]." The two artists eventually lived together, had neighboring studio spaces, and formed "the main audience for each other's work." Through their constant contact, they deeply influenced each other's artwork, exchanging ideas and techniques that broke from Abstract Expressionism. Rauschenberg introduced Johns to composer John Cage and choreographer Merce Cunningham, as well as to the work of European Dadaist Marcel Duchamp. In 1958, Johns and Rauschenberg traveled to see the collection of Duchamp's work at the Philadelphia Museum, where the elder Dada artist's readymades had a profound impact on both young artists. In 1959, Duchamp himself visited Johns' studio, forming a direct connection between the European avant-garde and the newest generation of American modernists. Through these introductions, Johns' artistic practice expanded as he incorporated the methods of each into his own work.
Although he had only exhibited his painting Green Target (1955) in a group show at the Jewish Museum in 1957, Johns received his first solo exhibition in 1958, after Rauschenberg introduced him to influential gallery owner Leo Castelli. The solo show featured Johns' groundbreaking painting Flag (1955), as well as other previously unseen works from the 1950s. The idea for Flag came to Johns one night in 1955, when he dreamt about painting a large American flag. He brought the dream to life the following day, and eventually he completed several paintings of variations on the theme, all of which were included in the Castelli Gallery show. The paintings all dealt with semiotic images, or symbols and signs, in a simple and straightforward manner and stood in strict opposition to the abstractions of earlier avant-gardes. The landmark solo exhibition received monumentally positive critical attention and catapulted Johns into the public eye. Alfred Barr, the director of the Museum of Modern Art, bought three paintings, which was essentially unheard of for a young, unknown artist.
As the Pop art movement grew around him, Johns left behind the colorful paintings filled with familiar gestures and images and turned to a darker palette. Some critics attribute the shift away from color and toward the grays, blacks, and whites that dominate many of his canvases from the early 1960s to the rocky end of his relationship with Rauschenberg. Although they did not move out of their New York studio spaces until 1961, their relationship was already strained by 1959. That year Rauschenberg acquired a studio space in Florida, and two years later, Johns took a studio on Edisto Island in South Carolina. Although they still spent some time together in New York, both increasingly went their own separate ways.
The end of such an influential and formative relationship had a huge emotional impact on Johns, and he immersed himself in his work as well as the linguistic philosophic works of Ludwig Wittgenstein and the poetry of Hart Crane. In 1963, he noted he "had the sense of arriving at a point where there was no place to stand." However, he continued to expand the fragmented focus and ambiguous meanings of his works. While he was involved with the Merce Cunningham Dance Company throughout the 1960s, he served as the artistic director from 1967 through 1980. In 1968, Johns designed the set decor for Walkaround Time after one of his most admired artworks, Duchamp's The Large Glass (The Bride Stripped Bare by Her Bachelors, Even) (1915-23). Starting in 1960, he began a long-lasting working relationship with Tatyana Grosman at Universal Limited Art Editions (ULAE), where he created over 120 prints over the decade. Many of his prints echoed the subjects of his paintings, while others expanded his visual repertoire, but all formed a critical dialogue with the rest of his oeuvre. During the 1960s, he also began to further integrate physical, sculptural elements into his paintings, a practice inherited from Duchamp and Rauschenberg.
After his Edisto Island studio burned down in 1968, Johns split his time between New York City, St. Martin, and Stony Point, New York; he bought studios at the latter two in the early 1970s. During this period, Johns introduced the use of the motif of crosshatching, or line clusters, into his repertoire, and this style dominated his output through the early 1980s. Throughout the 1980s and 1990s, Johns' work took a more introspective turn as he included specifically autobiographical, introspective content in his work. Although, as Johns pointed out, "There is a period in which I began to use images from my life, but everything you use is from your life."
Johns became increasingly more reclusive in the decades after his break from Rauschenberg, almost never giving interviews, and maintaining a very quiet public persona. However, he continued to have close contact with a select few of the art world's insiders; Philip Johnson designed the entertainment center that frames Johns' "latest greatest" wall in his St. Martin Studio, while the former Senior Consultant for Modern and Contemporary Art at the Metropolitan Museum, Nan Rosenthal, and her husband, lawyer Henry Cortesi, helped Johns name his Catenary series (1999) when the couple visited Johns in that same tropical studio in the late 1990s. He created his most recent series of prints with Universal Limited Art Editions (ULAE) in 2011, still experimenting with many recurring motifs in varying mediums.
Johns made headlines again in August 2013, after his studio assistant from 1988 until 2012, James Meyer, was charged with the theft of six and a half million dollars worth of art from a folder of works that Johns had prohibited from being sold. Meyer was in charge of that folder and absconded with the 22 works from Johns' studio in Sharon, Connecticut, to sell them through an unidentified gallery in New York, after claiming they were gifts from Johns. Johns did not comment on the theft, but he did fire Meyer shortly after discovering the missing works. Johns currently shares his time between his studios in Sharon, Connecticut, where he moved in the 1990s, and St. Martin, and is presently represented by the Matthew Marks Gallery in New York.
As part of the crucial Neo-Dada movement, Johns bridged the aesthetic gap between Abstract Expressionism and Pop art during the late 1950s, but to this day, he continues to expand his subjects, materials, and styles. Pop artists, like Andy Warhol and James Rosenquist, benefitted from Johns' groundbreaking turn to the outside world, which presented everyday objects and mass-produced goods as the subject matter of fine art. Through his exploration of the mutable meanings of images and symbols, Johns also paved the way for the Conceptual art movement of the 1960s. In his collaborations with performance artists like Merce Cunningham and Allan Kaprow, Johns' expanded artistic practice helped usher in movements and groups like Fluxus, body art, and the general performance art movement of the 1970s. While Pop artists directly inherited Johns' representation of the outside world, Postmodernism's aesthetic of bricolage is heir to his interest in appropriation, the multiplicity of meanings, and semiotic play. Ultimately, Johns and his Neo-Dada contemporaries shifted the focus of the American avant-garde, heralding the experimentation and viewer interaction that would come to dominate the art of the decades following his explosive arrival on the New York art scene in 1958.
Influences and Connections
Artists, Friends, Movements
Artists, Friends, Movements
Content compiled and written by Rachel Gershman
Edited and published by The Art Story Contributors
Useful Resources on Jasper Johns
| Jasper Johns |
By Michael Crichton
| Jasper Johns: Writings, Sketchbook Notes, Interviews |
By Christel Hollevoet, Robert Frank, Jasper Johns, and Kirk Varnedoe
| The Gray Areas of Jasper Johns |
By Carol Vogel
| The Mind's Eye |
By Calvin Tomkins
| The Unflagging Artistry of Jasper Johns |
By Deborah Solomon
| WNYC - The Leonard Lopate Show |
Discussion of the exhibition "Jasper Johns: Gray" at the Metropolitan Museum of Art
| Jasper Johns: Ideas in Paint || Tour of "Jasper Johns Drawings 1997-2007" at Matthew Marks Gallery |
February 5, 2008
| Tour of "Jasper Johns: An Allegory of Painting, 1955-1965" |
June 5, 2008
| Tour of "Jasper Johns: Gray" |
February 14, 2008
| Vanity Fair |
Questionnaire interview with Jasper Johns
| The Brooklyn Rail |
Interview with Jasper Johns by John Yau
| Smithsonian Archives of American Art |
Transcript of oral history interview by Paul Cummings with Leo Castelli, the gallery owner who gave Johns his first show. He describes meeting Johns and his early work.