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Artists Eva Hesse

Eva Hesse

German-American Sculptor

Movements: Minimalism, Feminist Art

Born: January 11, 1936 - Hamburg, Germany

Died: May 29, 1970 - New York, New York

Quotes

"I am interested in solving an unknown factor of art and an unknown factor of life. In fact, my idea is to counteract everything I've ever learned or been taught about those things - to find something that is inevitable that is my life, my feeling, my thoughts."
Eva Hesse
"In the forms I use in my work the contradictions are certainly there. I was always aware that I should take order versus chaos, stringy versus mass, huge versus small, and I would try to find the most absurd opposites or extreme opposites. I was always aware of their absurdity and also their formal contradictions and it was always more interesting than making something average, normal."
Eva Hesse

"I think art is a total thing. A total person giving a contribution. It is an essence, a soul.. In my inner soul art and life are inseparable."

Synopsis

Eva Hesse is one of the most renowned American artists to come of age in the immediate aftermath of The Abstract Expressionists. Having fled her native Germany during the rise of Nazism, Hesse was originally schooled in American abstract painting and commercial design practices. She originally pursued a career in commercial textile design in New York City, but Hesse's practice as an expressionist painter led her to increasingly experiment with industrial and every-day, or "found" materials, such as rope, string, wire, rubber, and fiberglass. Reducing her means in the spirit of Minimalism, Hesse explored by way of the simplest materials how to suggest a wide range of organic associations, psychological moods, and what might be called proto-feminist, sexual innuendo. She also experimented with expressing semi-whimsical states of mind rarely explored in the modern era until her all-too-brief debut. Thus Hesse arrived quickly at a new kind of abstract painting, as well as a kind of so-called "eccentric," freestanding sculpture.

Key Ideas

Professionally trained as an abstract painter and commercial designer, Hesse is a paradigmatic postwar American artist, much like Ellsworth Kelly, who regarded painting not as a two-dimensional surface, but as an object on the wall to be extended into the space of the viewer before it. Mimicking the organic vulnerability of the human body itself, work by Hesse seems to take on a tentative or even ephemeral life of its own, its material density apparently enlivened by some invisible, psychological momentum.
Much of Hesse's work might be thought of as a form of poetic, three-dimensional montage, a conjoining of disparate parts culled from diverse sources and combined, or arranged in ways that suggest moments of quiet reflection on the world around us.
Hesse's life was plagued by various kinds of physical and emotional hardship, ranging from political persecution to familial illness and depression, not least of all her eventual suffering and demise from cancer. Nevertheless, Hesse boldly forged ahead and made the most of her professional circumstances, ultimately to create abstract and endlessly evocative works free of any socio-political agenda.
Hesse was among the first artists of the 1960s to experiment with the fluid contours of the organic world of nature, as well as the simplest of artistic gestures. Some observers see in these qualities latent, proto-feminist references to the female body; others find in Hesse's languid forms expressions of wit, whimsy, and a sense of spontaneous invention with casually found, or "everyday" materials.

Most Important Art

Hang Up (1966)
The seemingly simple addition of the long metal rod to a canvas in Hang Up dramatically transformed a painting into a sculpture, symbolizing the artist's own transition from working in two to three dimensions. Hesse called Hang Up her earliest important artistic "statement", due to its successful manifestation of her fascination with "absurdity." The wire juts out seemingly too far into the space before the "picture", and the cloth-wrapped frame of the canvas contrasts strongly with the metal loop. The soft and hard textures are subtle testaments to the self-contradictory nature of much of Hesse's sculpture, keeping any given work's meaning shrouded in mystery. The rod protruding from the canvas might even be said to evoke the erotic, as did the orbs in Ringaround Arosie.
Acrylic paint on cloth over wood; acrylic paint on cord over steel tube - Art Institute of Chicago
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Biography

Childhood

Eva Hesse was born into a German-Jewish family during the social and political turmoil brought about by the rise of the Nazi regime in Hamburg. Family life under the Nazis was difficult for the Hesses; Eva's father, Wilhelm, was barred from his law practice, and mother, Ruth, frequently suffered bouts of depression. Intent on keeping their children safe after the November pogrom of 1938 ("Kristallnacht"), Eva and her sister Helen were sent to a Dutch children's home. The family was later reunited in England, from where they made their way to the United States.

Arriving in New York, the Hesses initially found support in the German-Jewish community of Washington Heights. Ruth's depression worsened, however, leading to her separation from the family in 1944. Ruth subsequently committed suicide shortly after Wilhelm remarried; Eva was then 10 years old.

A sensitive child with a strong attachment to her parents, Eva was deeply affected by the tragic loss of her mother. Nonetheless, she performed well in her classes and was a popular student at New York's School of Industrial Art (today the High School of Art and Design). Although she was characterized as "insecure" by family and friends (Helen has also publicly claimed that her sister suffered "separation anxiety"), Eva firmly believed in her own artistic potential. While interning at Seventeen as an 18-year-old, Eva was chosen as the subject of a feature article in which she described her artistic calling in no uncertain terms, stating, "For me, being an artist means to see, to observe, to investigate. It means trying to understand and portray people, their emotions, their strengths and faults. I paint what I see and feel to express life in all its reality and movement."

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Early Training

Eva Hesse Biography

While at Seventeen, Hesse took classes at the Art Students League. After brief studies at Pratt Institute, she gained a certificate in design from Cooper Union, and then went on to attend the School of Architecture at Yale University, where she was a student of Josef Albers. After graduating with a Bachelor of Fine Arts degree in 1959, Hesse took a job selling jewelry to supplement part-time employment as a textile designer. Following the example of her childhood idol, Willem de Kooning, Hesse strove to paint in an Abstract Expressionist style. Academically executed landscapes gradually gave way to figure sketches and self-portraits of intense color and heavy strokes of the palette knife. Her experimentations in painting and drawing produced some of the first of what was to be many compartmented images, a schematic compositional format that may have derived from her extensive design training. The widely influential Sixteen Americans show by curator Dorothy Miller at MoMA in 1959, which included the work of Louise Nevelson, Jasper Johns, and Ellsworth Kelly, may have further encouraged this aspect of Hesse's work, although she was already independently maturing as an artist by the end of the decade. A thick impasto method, coupled with the depiction of glowing, object-like shapes floating above a dark ground in Untitled (1960), demonstrate Hesse's growing interest in referring to three-dimensional space at that juncture.

In 1961, Hesse exhibited drawings and watercolors for her first shows at John Heller Gallery, the Brooklyn Museum, and the Wadsworth Atheneum. In April of the same year, she met the sculptor Tom Doyle, whom she married six months later. As was common of female artists of the day, Hesse's artistic output lessened in the years immediately following her marriage, but her professional development nonetheless continued to progress. Some of the most important drawings and paintings from this period feature her signature box works, but their systemization shows the beginnings of a subsequent preoccupation with the grid. The use of repeated units suggests the work of friend and informal mentor, Sol LeWitt, whose studio was within walking distance of Hesse and Doyle's apartment in downtown Manhattan.

Mature Period

Hesse and Doyle left New York to work in Dusseldorf in 1965, after Doyle received an offer from the Kunstverein, one of the oldest and most prestigious art associations devoted to contemporary art. Hesse immersed herself in the German art scene, which was dominated by abstract sculpture. Turning that winter to found materials in a converted studio-factory, she began to explore working with plaster and string, while continuing to produce variations of the grid in her paintings and drawings. A playful eroticism emerges in Hesse's work at this time, one possibly inspired by the examples of French artists Marcel Duchamp and Jean Tinguely. Hesse's experimentation led to Ringaround Arosie (1965), which she described as the representation of a breast and a penis. A selection of Hesse's reliefs and paintings were exhibited at the Kunsthalle Dusseldorf during the last month of 1965, the conclusion of the couple's year-long German sojourn.

Eva Hesse Photo

Hesse and Doyle divorced after returning to New York in 1966. Maintaining her studio on the Bowery, Hesse resumed her friendship with LeWitt, and grew close to Robert Smithson and Mel Bochner. These relationships resulted in a mutually productive exchange of ideas that would bear a strong influence on Hesse's subsequent work. It was also in 1966 that Hesse made a decisive transition from painting to sculpting, specifically with Hang Up (1966), a blank canvas consisting of a cloth-wrapped frame and a steel rod extending from its surface. Related to Minimalism, the exceedingly extended metal rod gives Hang Up a certain "absurd" distinction, as Hesse herself has remarked. Her inclusion in the watershed exhibition Eccentric Abstraction, of 1966, organized by Lucy Lippard for Fischbach Gallery, argued for a common ground between the leading artistic movements of the 1960s. In hindsight, Hesse's inclusion suggests how her work was exercising an ambivalent impression on critics and the public at that moment. In any event, Lippard's influential show led to Hesse's official representation by Fischbach starting in 1967.

Since the late 1960s, much has been made by critics of a so-called contradictory or "dual" nature in Hesse's work. Hang Up, for example, partakes of the spatial realms of both painting and sculpture. The pieces from Hesse's Metronomic Irregularity series, one of which was shown in Eccentric Abstraction, combine elements of Abstract Expressionism with formal qualities of Minimalism. In Metronomic Irregularity II (1966), one of her most renowned works, a Jackson Pollock-like composition of tangled wires floats above a Donald Judd-esque arrangement of boxes formed by pieces of slate and a blank wall. The visual impact of the sculpture exceeds its parts, however, taking on a life of its own. This equivocal phenomenon is in keeping with Hesse's desire, in her words, "to get to non-art, non-connotive, non-geometric, non-nothing, everything, but of another kind, vision, sort, from a total other reference point."

Late Period and Death

Eva Hesse Portrait

Once Hesse fully concentrated on sculpture, her work evolved rapidly. The Accession series of the late 1960s features her first forays into working with metal. Accession II (1967-68), a steel box lined with nearly countless multiple protrusions of plastic tubing features hard and soft textures to create an object that is both menacing and inviting. Meanwhile, Hesse started her first pieces in latex, a material that attracted Hesse due to its flexibility and its lending an organic quality to objects. The latex spheres of Schema (1968) soften the rigidity of the 12 x 12 matrix, thus subverting its harsher Minimalist overtones. In 1968, Hesse was introduced to fiberglass, which was the material of choice for the period's Repetition Nineteen series. Unlike Schema, which is a serial work in the strictest sense, the Repetition pieces seem to take place in random arrangement. Instead of relying on the tactility of latex, the Repetition series utilizes a more literal tube-like shape to convey an ambiguous organic nature.

In late 1968, Fischbach Gallery showed both Hesse's latex and fiberglass works in an exhibition titled Chain Polymers, named after Hesse's own scribbled description of this latest series. It was to be her first and only solo exhibition of sculpture. Well-received by the critics, the watershed exhibition was followed up by Hesse's inclusion in a group show organized by Robert Morris for Leo Castelli, the prestigious Annual Exhibition at the Whitney Museum of American Art, and the widely influential exhibition When Attitudes Become Form (1969), organized by Harald Szeemann for the Kunsthalle Bern. Important articles appeared in Life and Artforum magazines, and MoMA acquired two works from the Repetition series, all attesting to Hesse's evolving acclaim. Such professional successes were soon coupled by personal tragedy, however, as Hesse would undergo surgery for a brain tumor three times from 1969 to 1970. Hesse died in May 1970, at the age of 34, arguably at the very height of her career.

Legacy

Though Hesse's career spanned little more than a decade, her work has remained popular and highly influential. On the one hand, the enduring fascination with Hesse derives from her remarkable "life of extremes." But Hesse's work, itself, was very much part of an equivocal and unique era in history, when artists were seeking new modes of expression in the aftermath of Abstract Expressionism. Her answer to that problem continues to defy easy categorization. Hesse's oblique references to the human body succeeded in breathing new life into a former Surrealist current in Europe and the United States in the pre-World War II period; thus Hesse's work demonstrated to a new, postwar generation how to distill feelings and conceptual references down to a set of essential forms and contours. These forms' abstract, yet subtly organic qualities suggest that Hesse's work has left a distinct legacy for her contemporaries and subsequent followers. Indeed, the languid lines of her signature shapes, at once playful and full of gravitas, are apparent in a wide range of work by late-twentieth century American painters and sculptors, among them Brice Marden, Anish Kapoor, Louise Bourgeois, Martin Puryear, and Bill Jensen.

Influences and Connections

Influences on artist

Artists, Friends, Movements

Influenced by artist

Artists, Friends, Movements

Eva Hesse
Interactive chart with Eva Hesse's main influences, and the people and ideas that the artist influenced in turn.
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Artists

Carl Andre
Willem de Kooning
Marcel Duchamp

Friends

Sol LeWitt
Mel Bochner
Tom Doyle

Movements

Abstract Expressionism
Neo-Dada
Surrealism
Eva Hesse
Eva Hesse
Years Worked: 1960 - 1970

Artists

Kiki Smith
Rachel Whiteread

Friends

Lucy Lippard
Briony Fer
Sol LeWitt
Robert Smithson

Movements

Conceptual Art
Minimalism
Post-Minimalism

Original content written by The Art Story Contributors

Edited and published by The Art Story Contributors

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Useful Resources on Eva Hesse

Books
Articles
Videos
More
The books and articles below constitute a bibliography of the sources used in the writing this page. These also suggest some accessible resources for further research, especially ones that can be found and purchased via the internet.
biography
Eva Hesse

By Lucy R. Lippard

Encountering Eva Hesse

By Griselda Pollock

Eva Hesse (October Files)

By Mignon Nixon

Out of the Past

By Lucy Lippard
ArtForum
February 2008

Minimalism with a Human Face

By Darian Leader
Tate Magazine
November/December 2002

Still Searching for Eva Hesse

By Jeanne Siegel
Artnet.com Magazine
July 17, 2002

transcripts
An Interview with Eva Hesse

With Cindy Nemser
Artforum
May 1970

Abstract Expressionism
Abstract Expressionism
Abstract Expressionism
A tendency among New York painters of the late 1940s and '50s, all of whom were committed to an expressive art of profound emotion and universal themes. The movement embraced the gestural abstraction of Willem de Kooning and Jackson Pollock, and the color field painting of Mark Rothko and others. It blended elements of Surrealism and abstract art in an effort to create a new style fitted to the postwar mood of anxiety and trauma.
ArtStory: Abstract Expressionism
Minimalism
Minimalism
Minimalism
Minimalism emerged as a movement in New York in the 1960s, its leading figures creating objects which blurred the boundaries between painting and sculpture, and were characterized by unitary, geometric forms and industrial materials. Emphasizing cool anonymity over the passionate expression of the previous generation of painters, the Minimalists attempted to avoid metaphorical associations, symbolism, and suggestions of spiritual transcendence.
ArtStory: Minimalism
Josef Albers
Josef Albers
Josef Albers
Josef Albers was a German-born American painter and teacher. Celebrated as a geometric abstractionist and influential instructor at Black Mountain College, Albers directly influenced such artists as Robert Rauschenberg, Cy Twombly and Ray Johnson.
ArtStory: Josef Albers
Willem de Kooning
Willem de Kooning
Willem de Kooning
Willem de Kooning, a Dutch immigrant to New York, was one of the foremost Abstract Expressionist painters. His abstract compositions drew on Surrealist and figurative traditions, and typified the expressionistic 'gestural' style of the New York School.
ArtStory: Willem de Kooning
Louise Nevelson
Louise Nevelson
Louise Nevelson
Louise Nevelson was a Russian-born American artist who worked in the WPA and was a member of the Abstract Expressionist scene. She is best known for her black-painted constructions of assembled crates, boxes, headboards, and other wooden materials.
ArtStory: Louise Nevelson
Jasper Johns
Jasper Johns
Jasper Johns
Jasper Johns is an American artist who rose to prominence in the late 1950s for his multi-media constructions, dubbed by critics as Neo-Dada. Johns' work, including his world-famous targets and American flags series, were important predecessors to Pop art.
ArtStory: Jasper Johns
Ellsworth Kelly
Ellsworth Kelly
Ellsworth Kelly
Ellsworth Kelly is an American Color Field and Hard edge painter. Kelly got his start in the late 1950s with showings at the Betty Parsons Gallery and the Whitney Museum. His work often consists of shaped canvases, simple geometric shapes, and large panels of uniform color.
ArtStory: Ellsworth Kelly
Sol LeWitt
Sol LeWitt
Sol LeWitt
Sol LeWitt was an American artist commonly associated with the Minimalist and Conceptual movements. He rose to prominence in the 1960s with the likes of Rauschenberg, Johns and Stella, and his work was included in the famous 1966 exhibit Primary Structures at the Jewish Museum. LeWitt's art often employed simple geometric forms and archetypal symbols, and he worked in a variety of media but was most interested in the idea behind the artwork.
ArtStory: Sol LeWitt
Marcel Duchamp
Marcel Duchamp
Marcel Duchamp
The French artist Marcel Duchamp was an instrumental figure in the avant-garde art worlds of Paris and New York. Moving through Dada, Surrealism, readymades, sculpture, and installation, his work involves conceptual play and an implicit attack on bourgeois art sensibilities.
ArtStory: Marcel Duchamp
Jean Tinguely
Jean Tinguely
Jean Tinguely
Jean Tinguely was a Swiss painter and sculptor. He is best known for his sculptural machines, or Kinetic art, in the Dada tradition; known officially as metamechanics. Tinguely's art satirized the mindless overproduction of material goods in advanced industrial society.
Jean Tinguely
Robert Smithson
Robert Smithson
Robert Smithson
Robert Smithson was an American artist best known for his innovations in Land and Earth Art. Smithson's large-scale projects employed earth and other natural resources to construct works that both manipulated and preserved the natural landscape. His most famous work is Spiral Jetty in Utah, constructed entirely from basalt, earth and salt.
ArtStory: Robert Smithson
Lucy Lippard
Lucy Lippard
Lucy Lippard
Lucy Lippard is an American art scholar and curator who has focused on postmodern movements such as conceptual art, feminist theory, and land art.
Lucy Lippard
Jackson Pollock
Jackson Pollock
Jackson Pollock
Jackson Pollock was the most well-known Abstract Expressionist and the key example of Action Painting. His work ranges from Jungian scenes of primitive rites to the purely abstract "drip paintings" of his later career.
ArtStory: Jackson Pollock
Donald Judd
Donald Judd
Donald Judd
Donald Judd was an early and influential Minimalist artist who made large-scale geometric objects, often of industrial materials and serially arranged on the floor or wall. He helped found the Chinati Foundation in Marfa, Texas, where many key works of Minimalism are installed.
ArtStory: Donald Judd
Robert Morris
Robert Morris
Robert Morris
Robert Morris is an American artist whose early L-beam and column sculptures were key works in Minimalism. His work also includes felt and fabric pieces, performance, body art, and earthworks, often with an emphasis on process and theatricality.
ArtStory: Robert Morris
Leo Castelli
Leo Castelli
Leo Castelli
Leo Castelli was an American art collector and gallery owner. His Castelli Gallery in New York, which opened in 1957, held several groundbreaking shows that revealed to the art world works by artists such as Robert Rauschenberg and Jasper Johns. Castelli's gallery was considered an early proving ground for Neo-Dada, Pop, and Minimalist art.
ArtStory: Leo Castelli
Museum of Modern Art
Museum of Modern Art
Museum of Modern Art
The Museum has become the home for some of the greatest works of avant-garde painting, sculpture, film and multi-media art in the world. While MoMA remains true to its roots as a place where new styles of art can circulate, its permanent collection is widely considered the most impressive and diverse assortment of Modern art to ever exist, ranging from late-nineteenth-century van Goghs, Monets and Gauguins to works produced in the present day.
ArtStory: Museum of Modern Art
Feminist Art
Feminist Art
Feminist Art
Feminist art emerged in the 1960s and '70s to explore questions of sex, power, the body, and the ways in which gender categories structure how we see and understand the world. Developing at the same time as many new media strategies, feminist art frequently involves text, installation, and performance elements.
ArtStory: Feminist Art
Carl Andre
Carl Andre
Carl Andre
Carl Andre is an American Minimalist whose prominence rose in the late 1960s with a series of large public artworks and sculpture. His linear sculpture was included in the famed 1966 Primary Structures group exhibition at the Jewish Museum.
ArtStory: Carl Andre
Mel Bochner
Mel Bochner
Mel Bochner
Mel Bochner is an American conceptual artist living in New York City. Starting in the 1960s, he evolved several of the exhibition strategies, including using the walls of the gallery as the subject of the work and using photo documentation of ephemeral and performance works. Bochner began making paintings in the late 1970s, and his paintings range from extremely colorful works containing words to works more clearly connected to the conceptual art he pioneered. His pieces are held in several major museum collections, including the Museum of Modern Art in New York.
Mel Bochner
Tom Doyle
Tom Doyle
Tom Doyle
Tom Doyle was born in Ohio and creates primarily wood sculptures. Doyle's preoccupation is "to cantilever forms into space, to make them freestanding without obvious supports". Doyle has taught at the collegiate level, and has also been the recipient of numerous awards, fellowships, and grants such as The John Simon Guggenheim Fellowship Award in Sculpture.
Tom Doyle
Neo-Dada
Neo-Dada
Neo-Dada
Neo-Dada refers to works of art from the 1950s that employ popular imagery and modern materials, often resulting in something absurd. Neo-Dada is both a continuation of the earlier Dada movement and an important precursor to Pop art. Some important Neo-Dada artists include Robert Rauschenberg, Jasper Johns, Robert Morris and Allan Kaprow.
ArtStory: Neo-Dada
Surrealism
Surrealism
Surrealism
Perhaps the most influential avant-garde movement of the century, Surrealism was founded in Paris in 1924 by a small group of writers and artists who sought to channel the unconscious as a means to unlock the power of the imagination. Much influenced by Freud, they believed that the conscious mind repressed the power of the imagination. Influenced also by Marx, they hoped that the psyche had the power to reveal the contradictions in the everyday world and spur on revolution.
ArtStory: Surrealism
Kiki Smith
Kiki Smith
Kiki Smith
Kiki Smith, born in Germany, is an American artist classified as a feminist artist. Her Body Art is imbued with political significance, undermining the traditional erotic representations of women by male artists, and often exposes the inner biological systems of females as a metaphor for hidden social issues. Smith has also been active in debate over controversies such as AIDS, gender, race, and battered women. In 2009, Smith was awarded the Brooklyn Museum Women In The Arts Award.
Kiki Smith
Rachel Whiteread
Rachel Whiteread
Rachel Whiteread
Rachel Whiteread is an English artist, best known for her sculptures, which typically take the form of casts. She is probably best known for Ghost, a large plaster cast of the inside of a room in a Victorian house, and for her resin sculpture for the empty plinth in London's Trafalgar Square. She won the annual Turner Prize in 1993-the first woman to win the prize. Whiteread is one of the Young British Artists, and exhibited at the Royal Academy's Sensation exhibition in 1997.
Rachel Whiteread
Briony Fer
Briony Fer
Briony Fer
Briony Fer is currently a Professor of History of Art at the University of College London. In 1980 she joined the History of Art Department at the Open University as a Lecturer - working on groundbreaking courses there and publishing essays in the Modernity and Modernism textbooks, published jointly by the Open University and Yale University Press in 1993. Much of her research has focused on the work of the American sculptor Eva Hesse, writing for the 2002 retrospective of the artist curated by Elisabeth Sussman at SFMOMA in 2002. She is now involved in writing a book and co-curating an exhibition of Hesse's studio work.
Briony Fer
Conceptual Art
Conceptual Art
Conceptual Art
Conceptual art describes an influential movement that first emerged in the mid-1960s and prized ideas over the formal or visual components of traditional works of art. The artists often challenged old concepts such as beauty and quality; they also questioned the conventional means by which the public consumed art; and they rejected the conventional art object in favor of diverse mediums, ranging from maps and diagrams to texts and videos.
ArtStory: Conceptual Art
Post-Minimalism
Post-Minimalism
Post-Minimalism
Post-Minimalism refers to a range of art practices that emerged in the wake of Minimalism in the late 1960s, such as Body art, Performance, Process art, Site-Specific art, and aspects of Conceptual art. Some artists created art objects that do not have the representational function of traditional sculpture, objects that often have a strong material presence; others reacted against Minimalism's impersonality, and reintroduced emotionally expressive qualities.
ArtStory: Post-Minimalism