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Artists Barbara Hepworth
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Barbara Hepworth

British Sculptor

Movements and Styles: Surrealism, Modern Sculpture

Born: January 10, 1903 - Wakefield, Yorkshire, UK

Died: May 20, 1975 - St Ives, Cornwall, UK

Barbara Hepworth Timeline

Quotes

"If a pebble or an egg can be enjoyed for the sake of its shape only, it is one step towards a true appreciation of sculpture. A tree trunk, with its changing axis, swellings and varied sections, fully understood, takes us a step further. Then finally it is realized that abstract form, the relation of masses and planes, is that which gives sculptural life; this, then, admits that a piece of sculpture can be purely abstract or non-representational."
Barbara Hepworth
"The sculptor carves because he must. He needs the concrete form of stone and wood for the expression of his idea and experience, and when the idea forms the material is found at once."
Barbara Hepworth
"Carving is interrelated masses conveying an emotion; a perfect relationship between the mind and the color, light and weight which is the stone, made by the hand which feels."
Barbara Hepworth
"'Abstract' is a word which is now most frequently used to express only the type of the outer form of a work of art; this makes it difficult to use it in relation to the spiritual vitality or inner life which is the real sculpture. Abstract sculptural qualities are found in good sculpture of all time, but it is significant that contemporary sculpture and painting have become abstract in thought and concept."
Barbara Hepworth
"No militant feminist herself, she asked simply to be treated as a sculptor (never a sculptress), irrespective of sex."
Alan Bowness
"In these works this brave and indefatigable woman transcends the difficulties and ugliness of modern life and evokes a vision of radiant calm perfection."
Herbert Read

"Carving to me is more interesting than modeling, because there is an unlimited variety of materials from which to draw inspiration."

Barbara Hepworth Signature

Synopsis

Barbara Hepworth distinguished herself as a world-recognized sculptor in a period where female artists were rare. She evolved her ideas and her work as an influential part of an ongoing conversation with many other important artists of her time, working crucially in areas of greater abstraction while creating three dimensional objects. Her development of sculptural vocabularies and ideas was complex and multi-faceted. This included the use of a wide range of physical materials for sculpting and an unprecedented sensitivity to the particular qualities of those materials in helping decide the ultimate results of her sculptures, the investigation of "absence" in sculpture as much as "presence," and deep considerations of the relationship of her sculptural forms to the larger spaces surrounding it. Though her forms in their larger outlines tended to possess the clean lines of modernist aesthetics, she complicated these with different textures, an effect described by one reviewer as "sensuous and tactile" that "quickened the pulse".

Key Ideas

She helped shift three dimensional art works into greater abstraction as she herself moved from creating work mingling figurative forms with abstraction in her earlier sculptures to almost entirely abstract, non-representational later works.
Hepworth was a key figure among modern sculptors in responding to the physical characteristics of whichever material was chosen to work with in order to resolve appropriate forms for the finished works, rather than simply mold material to fit some pre-determined shape.
Though she developed a long series of highly abstract pieces, the greater trajectory of her work was imbued with underlying aspects of nature, which she brought out more explicitly in the sculptures of her later career. "All my sculpture comes out of landscape," she wrote in 1943. "I'm sick of sculptures in galleries & photos with flat backgrounds... no sculpture really lives until it goes back to the landscape, the trees, air & clouds."

Most Important Art

Barbara Hepworth Famous Art

Pelagos (1946)

Although the form of Pelagos is emphatically abstract, it was inspired by a view of the coast at St Ives in Cornwall, where Hepworth lived from 1949. "Pelagos" means "sea" in Greek. Hepworth undertook a practice of "direct carving," allowing the physical make-up of the wood to direct her chisel. The final shape recalls a wave or the curve of a headland. The inside is hollowed out and painted blue. The emphasis placed on the interior of the shape recalls Hepworth's experiments with holes and pierced forms, but here her ideas are taken a step further. The art historian A.M. Hammacher argues that the characteristic 'hole' of Hepworth's earlier work has taken control and "mastered the interior and even broken it open."

The form is also pierced with small holes and fretted with strings in a way that is reminiscent of a musical instrument. Hepworth said that these taut strings represented "the tension I felt between myself and the sea, the wind or the hills." Pelagos feels at once still and dynamic; it is presented both as a perfect harmonious form and as a coiled spring balancing precariously, waiting to unfurl. This sculptural tension, which Hepworth relates to her personal experience, makes the work simultaneously calming and unsettling for the viewer.
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Barbara Hepworth Artworks in Focus:

Biography

Childhood and Education

Hepworth was the eldest child of Gertrude and Herbert Hepworth, a civil engineer. She would frequently accompany her father on car trips round the Yorkshire countryside, and she spent summer holidays at Robin Hood's Bay, also in Yorkshire. This early connection with rural settings was to influence much of her work. After attending the Wakefield Girls' High School, she won a scholarship to study at Leeds School of Art in 1920.

While studying at the school, she met the sculptor Henry Moore, who was a fellow student. They struck up a friendship and a friendly rivalry that would inform the practice of both artists throughout the mature part of their careers. Both Hepworth and Moore went on to study sculpture at the Royal College of Art in London, where they took occasional trips to Paris. Having graduated with a diploma in 1923, Hepworth stayed an extra year in order to compete for the Prix de Rome, which was eventually won by sculptor John Skeaping, her future husband.

Early Career

Barbara Hepworth Biography

She was awarded a West Riding Scholarship in 1924, which allowed her to spend a year traveling abroad. She spent several months in Florence, Italy, where she studied Romanesque architecture and early Italian Renaissance art. She also traveled to Rome and Siena. In Florence's Palazzo Vecchio in May 1925 she married Skeaping, who specialized in sculptures of animals. The couple moved to Rome, where Skeaping was a scholar of sculpture at the British School, and Hepworth learned to carve marble under the tutelage of Giovanni Ardini.

In November 1926, the couple returned to London due to Skeaping's poor health. Hepworth began to exhibit her work at her own studio, before being invited to show at some smaller London galleries, marking the start of her mature art career. Their son, Paul Skeaping, was born on August 3, 1929.

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Barbara Hepworth Biography Continues

Mature Period

Barbara Hepworth Photo

In 1931, Hepworth met abstract painter Ben Nicholson and began a relationship. Hepworth separated from her husband in the same year. The breakdown of their marriage, and the start of Hepworth's relationship with Nicholson (who was also married), was marked by a working holiday to the Norfolk coast organized by Hepworth and Henry Moore. The divorce from Skeaping was finalized in 1933.

Hepworth and Nicholson lived in Hampstead, in north London, near Henry Moore and several other significant artists. Art historian Herbert Read, Hepworth's contemporary and friend, described the area as "a nest of gentle artists." In 1934, Hepworth gave birth to triplets: Simon, Rachel and Sarah Hepworth-Nicholson. Hepworth said of the birth of her triplets, "it was a tremendously exciting event. We were only prepared for one child and the arrival of three babies by six o'clock in the morning meant considerable improvisation for the first few days."

Nicholson and Hepworth shared a studio, where they often worked collaboratively, frequently drawing and photographing each other at work. Hepworth said of their relationship, "as painter and sculptor each was the other's best critic." Nicholson's painting was characterized by a deep devotion to abstraction, and Hepworth was strongly influenced by this in her own sculpture. During this period, her work increasingly eschewed traditional forms. By the mid-1930s she had moved away from the human or figurative-based abstraction of artists such as Constantin Brancusi until she was creating sculptures that were wholly abstract.

Through this commitment to abstraction, Hepworth came into contact with some of the most important artists of the age, including Picasso, Arp, MirĂ³ and Mondrian (who Hepworth and Nicholson helped find an apartment when he moved to London). Hepworth and Nicholson were both part of the Paris-based exhibiting group "Abstraction-Creation" in 1933-34. She exhibited extensively with various abstractionist groups in this period, both in the UK and in Paris, and contributed to anti-fascist exhibitions and catalogs. In 1938, Hepworth and Nicholson married.

Just before the outbreak of WWII in 1939, Hepworth and Nicholson went to stay in St Ives, Cornwall, at the invitation of art critic Adrian Stokes. They stayed until the War was over, first at Stokes' own home and then at a small rented cottage nearby. The cramped conditions and demands of a young family meant that Hepworth had little time for sculpture. Instead, she focused her attention on drawing and studies. The small seaside town and Cornish countryside nevertheless made an impression on Hepworth, much as the Yorkshire landscape of her youth had. Her abstract work shifted to include influences of natural shapes and landscapes. In 1949 she bought a house and studio at St Ives, where she lived for the rest of her life.

Late Period

Barbara Hepworth Portrait

Though she had often felt in Moore's shadow in terms of fame and recognition, Hepworth's public visibility increased when her work was shown at the Venice Biennale in 1950 and as part of the Festival of Britain in 1951. Hepworth's marriage to Nicholson dissolved in the same year, although he remained in St Ives until 1958. Her work was considerably set back by her reaction to the death of her son Paul in a plane crash in 1953. After she had recovered, Hepworth began to work on a larger scale, taking inspiration from her travels on a restorative visit to Greece. In 1956 she began to work in bronze and other metals, allowing her to create work in small editions to keep up with the increasing demand.

Her work continued to be popular, and she was frequently dubbed the greatest living female sculptor. Hepworth's frequent use of cross-hatching strings, rods or even fishing line in her harder sculptural forms became such a well-known feature in her work that the satirical magazine Punch published a humorous cartoon in 1970 depicting the artist making her sculpture by hand-stitching. She was appointed a Dame in Britain (the female equivalent of being dubbed a knight), and made a Trustee of the Tate Gallery (until 1972), its first female trustee. She worked up until her death in 1975, which was caused by a fire in her studio at St Ives. Her obituary in The Guardian described her as "probably the most significant woman artist in the history of art to this day," though many might differ. Nonetheless, it points to Hepworth's significant standing as a popular artist in her own day.


Legacy

Along with her friend Henry Moore, Hepworth was fundamental in establishing a characteristic vocabulary of modern British sculpture. Through a shared interest in the ideal of "truth to materials", or to a sculptural form dictated in part by the inherent properties of the media used, Hepworth and Moore created an approach focused on process and materials that was highly influential for artists as diverse as Eduardo Paolozzi and Anthony Caro. Hepworth also remains a key figure in the history of women artists and has been cited as inspirational by many contemporary figures, including Tracey Emin and Charlotte Moth. One might also note her influence on Rachel Whiteread, whose own large-scale plaster sculptures have extended the pursuit of "absence" to greater reaches.

The critical reception of Hepworth has focused on her biography to an unusual degree. This is perhaps because of her dual roles as woman sculptor and mother, bringing up four young children whilst also nurturing her art; the link is particularly significant in relation to her "mother and child" sculptures. This biographical emphasis can also be explained by the fact that Hepworth was connected with so many of the key artistic figures of her day, including her close relationships with Henry Moore and Ben Nicholson.

Influences and Connections

Influences on artist

Artists, Friends, Movements

Influenced by artist

Artists, Friends, Movements

Barbara Hepworth
Interactive chart with Barbara Hepworth's main influences, and the people and ideas that the artist influenced in turn.
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View Influences Chart

Artists

Ben NicholsonBen Nicholson
Piet MondrianPiet Mondrian
Constantin BrancusiConstantin Brancusi
Hans ArpHans Arp

Friends

Henry MooreHenry Moore
Ben NicholsonBen Nicholson

Movements

SurrealismSurrealism
Primitive ArtPrimitive Art
Barbara Hepworth
Barbara Hepworth
Years Worked: 1920s-1970s

Artists

Tracey EminTracey Emin
Eduardo PaolozziEduardo Paolozzi
Anthony CaroAnthony Caro

Friends

Herbert ReadHerbert Read
Henry MooreHenry Moore
Ben NicholsonBen Nicholson

Movements

Modern SculptureModern Sculpture

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Content compiled and written by Anna Souter

Edited and published by The Art Story Contributors

" Artist Overview and Analysis". [Internet]. . TheArtStory.org
Content compiled and written by Anna Souter
Edited and published by The Art Story Contributors
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Useful Resources on Barbara Hepworth

Videos

Books

Websites

Articles

The books and articles below constitute a bibliography of the sources used in the writing of this page. These also suggest some accessible resources for further research, especially ones that can be found and purchased via the internet.

biography

Barbara Hepworth

By Helena Bonnet, Lee Beard, Sophie Bowness, Dr. Penelope Curtis, and Chris Stephens

Barbara Hepworth: Writings and Conversations Recomended resource

By Sophie Bowness

written by artist

Barbara Hepworth: A Pictorial Autobiography Recomended resource

By Barbara Hepworth

Barbara Hepworth: The Hospital Drawings

By Nathaniel Hepburn

More Interesting Books about Barbara Hepworth
Moore: Hepworth: Nicholson - A Nest of Gentle Artists in the 1930s Recomended resource

By Nicholas Thornton
Norwich Castle Museum and Art Gallery
January 2009

Barbara Hepworth: A Life told in Six Works

By Tim Adams
The Guardian
June 7, 2015

Barbara Hepworth: Forms and Hollows

By Jackie Wullschlager
The Financial Times
June 26, 2015

Who is Barbara Hepworth?

By Tate Editors
Tate online
June 3, 2015

More Interesting Articles about Barbara Hepworth
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