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Artists Keith Haring
Keith Haring Photo

Keith Haring

American Graffiti Artist, Sculptor, and Muralist

Movements and Styles: Graffiti Art, Neo Pop Art

Born: May 4, 1958 - Reading, Pennsylvania

Died: February 16, 1990 - New York, New York

Keith Haring Timeline

Quotes

"Art is life and life is art."
Keith Haring
"...I think that in a way some [critics] are insulted because I didn't need them. Even [with] the subway drawings I didn't go through any of the 'proper channels' and succeeded in going directly to the public and finding my own audience...I bypassed them and found my public without them. They didn't have the chance to take credit for what I did. They think that they have the role of finding the artist...and then teaching the public....I sort of stepped on some toes..."
Keith Haring
"The person who created these works certainly experienced his share of anxiety and euphoria, and certainly cared deeply about the connections between living things, but he also cared about the connections between color and line, open and defined space, chaos and clarity. He put all his experience of the world into his art - in the hope that he could communicate at both a visceral and intellectual level with the broadest possible audience".
Julia Gruen, Director, Keith Haring Foundation
"Keith made works that can hang in museums alongside masterpieces by Jackson Pollock and Andy Warhol and hold their own as art-historically important pieces. But there's also the art world you see on the streets, and Keith helped make that happen. He took what he learned from Warhol and connected it to street culture-punk-rock posters, graphics on sports equipment, kids' clothing, the music scene, and the club scene-and created a counter art world."
Jeffery Deitch
"He has been misunderstood by more conservative people in the art establishment who can't see past the Haring images on kids' T-shirts and knapsacks and acknowledge his drawings and paintings as works in the tradition of the modern masters. In the past few years, he has begun to be accepted and valued on a par with other major contemporary artists. But there's still a gap. You don't walk in and see a Keith Haring hanging prominently in most American museums. I think that the art establishment has a hard time reconciling someone who is a great painter or sculptor and also really embraces popular culture."
Jeffery Deitch

"In all my work there is some degree of content that is more obvious, communicating a specific or a general idea that people will get. But a lot of times the work is ambiguous enough that it can interpreted by whoever."

Keith Haring Signature

Synopsis

Keith Haring joined a long but sporadic lineage of twentieth century artists who brought elements of popular culture, "low art" and non-art elements into the formerly exclusive "high art" spaces of museums and galleries. He drew on the techniques and locales of street-based art such as graffiti and murals, employed bright and artificial colors, and kept imagery accessible in order to grab the eyes and minds of viewers and get them both to enjoy themselves and to engage with important concerns. Along with his artist contemporaries Jean-Michel Basquiat and Kenny Scharf, Haring opened the field of possibility for how seemingly simple and even cartoony elements by self-taught or less-schooled artists might be appreciated.

Key Ideas

Haring's deceptively simple imagery and text provided poignant and cutting cultural commentary on issues including AIDS, drug addiction, illicit love, and apartheid. As both an artist and an activist he established that depicting serious issues could be fun or at least lively when communicated through highly cartoony images and fresh and vivid choices of colors.
Haring's commitment to clean lines and simple images gave new life to figuration in painting, in contrast to the more abstract and conceptual approaches of the previous generation, and the more expressionistic gestural painting of his contemporaries.
Haring provided proof of the possibilities of using public sites that were not usually dedicated to art to share artistic and political messages to multiple audiences. He lent street art credibility and legitimacy and took it into fine art galleries and museums, inspiring a new generation of street-to-gallery artists.

Most Important Art

Keith Haring Famous Art

Untitled (1982)

One of his early works, this radiant heart-love motif would show up in many paintings and drawings throughout the rest of his career. This innocent yet controversial image of two men in love is mild in comparison with Haring's later sexually explicit images., but the boldness of representing homosexual love at this point in time was already a significant statement and a marked achievement in the larger cultural realm. As his art career unfolded, and his confidence grew, it gave him the courage to generate more sexually explicit images of gay figures and scenes. In the above image, two people are depicted in love, with Haring's often-used lines of energy emphasizing this euphoric state as much as the kinetic movement of these figures' bodies in space. This image in many ways distills the optimistic attitude of Haring, who was, at heart, in many ways a Romantic, believing in humanity and the power of love.

Visually, the image is classic Haring in its flat, two-dimensional surface, cartoon-like simplicity and the use of vibrant, saturated colors. He often outlined his characters and scenes with thick black lines reminiscent of many earlier modern artists (such as Picasso), as well as from the Pop art movement (Warhol), in addition to Haring's contemporaries the 1980s New York City graffiti artists. Haring used vibrant lines in and around his subjects to convey energy, both positive and negative. Some attribute his adoption of this visual sign to the influence of Hip Hop music, where the visual imagery of dark lines was used to represent the impact of sound on listeners.
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Keith Haring Artworks in Focus:

Biography

Childhood

Keith Haring was born on May 4, 1958 in Reading, Pennsylvania, but grew up in nearby Kutztown, Pennsylvania. He discovered a love for drawing at an early age, learning basic cartooning skills from his father who drew comics for a hobby. Like many children of his generation he was an admirer of the popular animation of Disney, Dr. Seuss and Looney Toons.

Early Training

After High School In 1976, Haring enrolled in the Ivy School of Professional Art in Pittsburgh. After only two semesters, he realized that he had no interest in becoming a commercial graphic artist and dropped out. He remained temporarily in Pittsburgh and continued to study and work on his own. His critical influences at this time were a 1977 Pierre Alechinsky retrospective and a lecture by the sculptor Christo. In 1978 Haring had the good fortune to be invited for his first solo exhibition at the Pittsburgh Arts and Crafts Center when the Center's first choice artist cancelled. This gave him the confidence for the next big move in his fledgling art career - relocating to New York City.

Keith Haring Biography

Haring attended The School of Visual Arts (SVA) in New York City in 1978. He soon discovered an alternative art scene happening in the streets and subways led by graffiti artists. He became friends with fellow artists Kenny Scharf and Jean-Michel Basquiat. He first started doing his own white chalk drawings in the subways on the readily available plain black empty background of advertising spaces.

In his own words: "One day, riding the subway, I saw this empty black panel where an advertisement was supposed to go. I immediately realized that this was the perfect place to draw. I went back above ground to a card shop and bought a box of white chalk, went back down and did a drawing on it. It was perfect-soft black paper; chalk drew on it really easily."

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Keith Haring Biography Continues

These drawings about life, love, sex and death became conversation starters for New York's subway riders. As Haring told it: "I was always totally amazed that the people I would meet while I was doing them were really, really concerned with what they meant. The first thing anyone asked me, no matter how old, no matter who they were, was what does it mean?" He credited the immediate and continuing feedback of these encounters with helping him channel his stylistic choices. Between 1980 and 1985, he produced thousands of public drawings, developing his style of cartoon-like characters and symbols while also developing name recognition. Eventually, along with other artists, musicians and poets, he organized exhibitions at clubs, restaurants, and even in illegally appropriated buildings or "squats," which were common in the New York City of the early 1980s. Two spaces in particular - The Mudd Club and Club 57 - became "go-to" hot spots for aspiring, young, creative individuals.

At the age of only 20, Haring already had strong opinions about the art world, as shown in the following quote from his journal: "Art in 1978 has seen numerous attempts at classifying or labeling and then exploiting an idea until the idea itself is lost in the process." Later in the same journal entry he stated the idealist notion that "Art is life and life is art".

Mature Period

Keith Haring Photo

Between 1978 to 1982 Haring established himself as a respected "rebel" artist of the street and alternative indoor spaces, outside the elite New York art world. Eventually, he accepted representation from Tony Shafrazi and in 1982 made his high visibility fine art debut with a popular and highly acclaimed one-man exhibition at Shafrazi's Soho gallery. Over the next few years he participated in notable international exhibitions such as Documenta 7 in Kassel, the Sao Paulo Biennial, and the Whitney Biennial in New York.

Throughout the 1980s he produced dozens of murals and public works all over the world, including in Europe, South America, and Australia. Through his travels, he saw the art of ancient cultures up-close, such as the Maya of Central America, Bahia-Brazil's peoples of mixed African and native descent, and the Aborigines of Australia, all of which had a lasting influence on his artwork. He also created a mural for the 100th anniversary of the Statue of Liberty in 1986, on which he worked with 900 children. The following year he created a mural for Necker Children's Hospital in Paris, France, and a mural on the western side of the Berlin Wall (three years before it fell.) He also made lucrative commercial deals developing watch designs for Swatch and an advertising campaign for Absolut Vodka. He even painted bodies, including celebrities such as the iconic 1980's musician and performing artist Grace Jones. Much of his art was now politically charged such as the campaign to raise awareness about AIDS and South African Apartheid.

It was during this period that he developed a friendship with the famous Pop Artist Andy Warhol. As with Basquiat, this relationship added to Haring's prestige and to the gradual, grudging acceptance of his work by the elite fine art establishment. American museum curators were still unsure about Haring's place in the canon of contemporary artists. This slow acknowledgement was similar to an earlier era when forward-looking European museums had acquired some of what became the most significant American modern artists of the 1950s and 1960s before the more conservative American museums accepted them into their prestigious institutions. To this day the biggest American museums such as the Museum of Modern Art in New York and the Art Institute of Chicago have only acquired a couple of Haring's lesser drawings, and other museums such as The Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York and Los Angeles County Museum of Art have none at all.

In 1986 Haring opened Pop Shop, his own art merchandise store in downtown Manhattan. He decorated the interior and his many black and white style doodles filled every corner of the retail space. The merchandise was meant to be popular and affordable, and T-shirts, toys, posters, buttons and magnets bore his images. Pop Shop opened the door for later experiments and crossovers to mass-scale or low-cost retail items from the hands or minds of celebrated "fine" artists such as Murakami, Koons, and even Banksy.

Keith Haring Portrait

In a sad, ironic twist of fate, at the peak of his career Haring, who, throughout the 1980s had used his artwork to advocate for AIDS awareness, was diagnosed with AIDS in 1988. In 1989, he established the Keith Haring Foundation to provide funding and images to AIDS organizations, and allocate resources towards finding a cure for the devastating disease. He was prolific in creating artwork right up to his death but died in 1990 of AIDS-related complications at only 31 years old.


Legacy

Many understand the overall ethos of street art as a rebellion against the status quo. For Haring this included the elitist fine art world itself. Though technically untrained rural folk art had found a niche, urban street art was only widely recognized after the 1980s commercial success of Haring and others such as Basquiat. Haring's success lent credibility and legitimacy to street art by proving it worthy of exhibition in fine art galleries and museums. As one very powerful example, Haring's didactic, subversive and cartoon-like art opened up the path for underground cartoonist Matt Groening's extremely successful Simpsons franchise (which included the longest running television show in American history, among other media that Groening's characters and images appeared in), a satire on the modern nuclear family and American values.

In the early 21st century on the streets, murals and urban graffiti art are now a worldwide phenomenon, with periodicals and websites dedicated to them as art forms. Successful street artists from the early 1980s paved the way for future street-to-gallery artists such as Shepard Fairey, Banksy, and Swoon. These artists were and are still considered rebels, at times risking arrest and/or censorship to display their often politically charged art in both public and private spaces. By choosing this contrarian path they have in many cases ultimately been able to negotiate better terms for the exhibition and compensation of their work within the usually more closed, elitist circles of the fine art world.

Influences and Connections

Influences on artist

Artists, Friends, Movements

Influenced by artist

Artists, Friends, Movements

Keith Haring
Interactive chart with Keith Haring's main influences, and the people and ideas that the artist influenced in turn.
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View Influences Chart

Artists

Pierre AlechinskyPierre Alechinsky
Pablo PicassoPablo Picasso
Joan MirĂ³Joan MirĂ³
Andy WarholAndy Warhol

Friends

Jean-Michel BasquiatJean-Michel Basquiat
Kenny ScharfKenny Scharf
Andy WarholAndy Warhol

Movements

Neo-ExpressionismNeo-Expressionism
Graffiti ArtGraffiti Art
Keith Haring
Keith Haring
Years Worked: Late 1970s-1990

Artists

Kenny ScharfKenny Scharf
Matt GroeningMatt Groening
Shepard FaireyShepard Fairey
BanksyBanksy
SwoonSwoon

Friends

Jeffrey DeitchJeffrey Deitch
Kenny ScharfKenny Scharf

Movements

Graffiti ArtGraffiti Art
Neo Pop ArtNeo Pop Art

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Useful Resources on Keith Haring

Videos

Books

Websites

Articles

More

The books and articles below constitute a bibliography of the sources used in the writing of this page. These also suggest some accessible resources for further research, especially ones that can be found and purchased via the internet.

biography

Keith Haring (2014) Recomended resource

By Jeffrey Deitch

Keith Haring (2008)

By Elisabeth Sussman

written by artist

Keith Haring - Journals (2010) Recomended resource

By Keith Haring

Body Language: Keith Haring and the Renaissance of Figurative Painting in the Eighties Recomended resource

By Andreas Schalhorn

Keith Haring Paints the Berlin Wall

NY Times
October 24, 1986

Haring & Warhol

By Chris Barsanti
November 6, 2008

Keith Haring: Rebel With Many Causes Recomended resource

By David Galenson
The Huffington Post
July 17, 2013

More Interesting Articles about Keith Haring
Keith Haring: The Message (6 parts) Recomended resource

Context and Overview of Haring including footage of Keith painting

From the archives: Keith Haring was here Recomended resource

Shown on CBS Evening News on October 20, 1982

Kenny Scharf on Keith Haring

Panel Discussion: Keith Haring's Artistic Language

Brooklyn Museum's Exhibit: Keith Haring: 1978-1982

More Interesting Videos with Keith Haring
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