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Artists Andreas Gursky
Andreas Gursky Photo

Andreas Gursky

German Photographer

Movements and Styles: Dusseldorf school, Modern Photography

Born: January 15, 1955 - Leipzig, Germany

Andreas Gursky Timeline

Quotes

"All my pictures are based on a direct visual experience from which I develop an idea for a picture, which is subjected to testing in the studio and eventually worked on and precised at the computer."
Andreas Gursky
"The American Abstract Expressionists fascinate me. The distinction between photography and painting is still that the viewer always reads photography as what is presented, whereas painting is about the presentation as such. That has always been a guidepost for me. It is interesting to me that someone looking at my work tends to be stunned initially by being first confronted with visual phenomena that cannot be immediately classified."
Andreas Gursky
"I think I'm a very slow worker, so I focus on one picture and the background of the original idea for why I choose this location or this space is always a reference to a picture that I did before, but then I change the content a bit."
Andreas Gursky
"My preference for clear structures is the result of my desire - perhaps illusory - to keep track of things and maintain my grip on the world."
Andreas Gursky
"I compare my work to that of a writer. He writes from what he remembers and his different impressions. In a way, a writer has the freedom to connect different thoughts, and this is the way I work with photography. It is not a straight documentary but the details that are going together, they come from the real world and they exist."
Andreas Gursky
"Even if a picture is completely invented or built, it's necessary that you could imagine that it's a realistic location or place. I am not happy if the picture looks completely surreal. Even if I am working with montage, I want that you don't see it."
Andreas Gursky
"I am never interested in the individual, but in the human species and its environment."
Andreas Gursky
"I only pursue one goal: the encyclopedia of life,"
Andreas Gursky
"My photographs are 'not abstract.' Ultimately, they are always identifiable. Photography in general simply cannot disengage from the object."
Andreas Gursky

"It is not pure photography, what I do."

Synopsis

Emerging from the renowned Dusseldorf School in the late 1980s, Andreas Gursky was pivotal in creating a new standard in contemporary photography, a pioneer who furthered the possibilities of scale and ambition. His massive, clinical, and distanced surveys of public spaces, landscapes, and structures contributed to a new art of picture taking in contrast to the Minimalism and Conceptualism of the 1970s. His use of large-format cameras, scanning, digital manipulation, the layering of multiple pictures to create a cohesive image, and technical postproduction positioned him as an important bridge between the old ways of shooting and presenting pictures and the current highly, technologically advanced era of photography.

Key Ideas

Vast, large places are of particular interest to the artist such as stock exchanges, concert arenas, big box stores, sweeping landscapes, racetracks, and other locations, which engage in regular relationship with the human population. His monumental photographs of these environments have the effect of fully encompassing the viewer within the spaces they aim to portray.
Gursky's photographs are often shot from an elevated, aerial perspective. This allows viewers to experience a scene in its full proportions, which would ordinarily be impossible, allowing for a visual comprehension of scope, center, and periphery.
A straightforward and distanced observation informs Gursky's work, leaving us to formulate our own opinions and responses. We recognize his world as our own rather than one adorned with any personal messaging.
Aggregate space performs largely in the success of each work. Even though his subject matter exists prior to his encounter with it, he manages to masterfully reveal its inherently harmonious sum of individual parts where objects become elements such as strata, line, geometry, color, and form.
Gursky's photographs create a dialogue between painting and representation in that they go beyond merely capturing a piece of visual documentation - they in fact oftentimes conjure the look and feel borrowed from such movements as Abstract Expressionism and Minimalism.
Although Gursky refrains from social or political commentary with his work, he admits an overriding interest in capturing the existence of globalism and consumerism as it relates to modern man.

Most Important Art

Andreas Gursky Famous Art

Gas Cooker (1980)

Gas Cooker (1980) is Andreas Gursky's first published photograph, depicting the lit gas stove in his Düsseldorf home. His consideration of form and texture in the piece reflects the burgeoning development of his signature style. Like his landscapes and interiors, he approaches the stove from a high vantage point in a way that is slightly unusual for the viewer. His choice of even light and a deadpan presentation of the scene emphasizes the milky fields of monotone color and causes the viewer to notice the geometry of squares, rectangles, and line within an otherwise ordinary, everyday object made further delightful by the circular rings of fire.

This image exists both in contrast and preface to the later work he is most known for. Gursky's mature work deals with globalism and capitalism in contemporary society, but this image was conceived from individual experience while cooking when "after a while I saw it as an image." Although this early photograph was not made upon complete impulse, his later work relies on extensive research and logistical planning. Gas Cooker is also one of his most 'simple' images as is a still life with a single object-as-subject instead of a scene exploring how the chosen subject interacts within its environment.

Although Gas Cooker may appear different than Gursky's later works, upon examination one can see a consistency of approach that weaves through his oeuvre.
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Andreas Gursky Artworks in Focus:

Biography

Childhood

Andreas Gursky was born in Leipzig, East Germany on January 15, 1955. An only child, he later moved with his family to the West German city of Essen followed by Düsseldorf in 1957. Both his grandfather and father were successful commercial photographers and although he at first "denied anything to do with photography," he changed his mind in high school. He dabbled in a few commercial shoots before moving in a more artistic direction.

Early Training and Work

In 1978 Gursky began to study photojournalism at the Folkwang University of the Arts in Essen, while working as a taxi driver. After graduating in 1980, he was encouraged by friend and future star photographer Thomas Struth to join him at the Kunstakademie Düsseldorf in 1981, where he began to study under the seminal photographers Bernd and Hilla Becher. The Bechers were the founders of what would become known as the Düsseldorf School, and were celebrated for their black and white typographic photographs of industrial archetypes. Their students, who included Candida Höfer, Axel Hütte, Thomas Ruff, Thomas Struth, and Gursky, were highly influenced by their teachers' interest in architecture and a detached presentation style. Although each would expand into using color in their work, together they went on to form a group of notable contemporary photographers.

Gursky was considered a master student by 1985, and before graduating in 1987 was already showing signs of his signature foray into "aggregate space," a term used in social sciences to describe a whole made up of its individual parts. Although he went on to become famous for photographing voluminous landscapes and public spaces, his first published photograph of his oven indicated this eye for finding the smaller elements of a composition - seen as geometry, linearity, strata, color block, and form beyond its literal imagery.

As his career progressed he began drawing inspiration from artists including the American Abstract Expressionist painters and photographers. These included Steven Shore, who photographed banal scenes with a bold depiction of color; and John Davies, who shot the urban and rural environment. But his most notable influence was the Canadian Jeff Wall who presents scenes of natural beauty, urban decay, and postmodern and industrial featurelessness through large-scale, cibachrome transparencies within fluorescent lightboxes.

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Andreas Gursky Biography Continues

Gursky began to make his own massive color prints (eventually measuring up to six feet tall and ten feet long) in 1988, at the time when photography was beginning to be taken seriously in the fine art world - partly due to increasing the size of prints, thus drawing parallels to painting. His signature style beckoned comparison with abstraction, because although he photographed place and space in honest literality, his genius knack for recognizing composition within the frame of a lens, produced works akin to paintings. A Prada store interior became a Rothko-like plane of key lime green and baby pink color blocks bisected by the splashes of colored shoes hanging in a horizontal box. A view of a black, cloudy sky became a gloomy watercolor of gradient gray splotches. A bikini shop wall morphed into a monotone beige minimalist piece, accentuated by a row of hanging swimmers that resembled drips of color.

Mature Period

Since the late 1980s Gursky has been "concerned with the human species," (as he put it) exploring the inner workings of contemporary society, specifically globalism and consumerism. He tends to read a photograph "not for what's really going on there, I read it more for what is going on in our world generally." Traveling internationally, his work consists of a wide range of subjects from landscapes to racetracks, public spaces such as stores, and sites of industry and trade. He has evolved a unique aerial perspective, often requiring cranes and helicopters to capture a high yet straightforward vantage point. Although many of his images appear to be abstract, upon close examination he is turning a critical yet detached eye toward the subject. Looking to "learn from the visual world, to learn how everything sticks together," his matter-of-fact confrontation sidesteps any personal political view; thus, allowing the viewer to form their own opinion. Gursky's practice, dense with conceptual and visual qualities derives from observation and research, creating a unique blend of fiction and reality whether the scene is built, heavily altered, or captured in its originally observed state.

In the late 1990s critic Jerry Saltz gave Gursky and former classmates Thomas Ruff and Thomas Struth the nickname of "Struffsky," implying that the three German photographers were interchangeable because they were part of the 'Düsseldorf School', were classmates at Kunstakademie Düsseldorf, and worked with a similar aesthetic. Although they do make images in a similarly disengaged observatory style, they select and use their subjects differently. Gursky focuses on globalism; while Struth creates portraits, landscapes, and interiors that he has an abstract or personal relationship with; and Ruff focuses on different ways to use the medium of photography itself through portraits and 3D imagery.

Current Practice

Gursky still lives with his wife and family in Düsseldorf, where he shares a studio with fellow photographers Laurenz Berges, Axel Hütte, and Thomas Ruff in an electrical station that was renovated by renowned architects Herzog & de Meuron. Since 2010 he has been a Professor at his former university Kunstakademie Düsseldorf.

Although he continues to make expansive prints exploring aspects of postmodern society, in the early 2000s Gursky began to experiment with smaller prints and reprints of previous work to offer the viewer different experiences. While Gursky aims to be physically removed and politically neutral in most of his work, he exhibited a very rare self-portrait named Untitled XVI (2008) in his exhibition Works 80-08, depicting himself crouching before a wall, "more or less in my studio, thinking about doing a work."

Interestingly, electronic music has been important to Gursky for over 22 years - as an interest, influence, and subject matter. He has photographed raves, festivals, and clubs and plays it while installing exhibitions. In 2016, he synthesized his images with music by inviting acclaimed DJ, producer, and friend Richie Hawtin (aka Platikman) to create a soundscape to accompany his exhibition Not Abstract II. In an interview with Gursky and Hawtin, Gursky explains the music, "is neither merely accompanying the images nor is it a typical Richie Hawtin sound. It is much rather a soundscape... and permeates the images in the most peculiar way... it feels as if something is breathing, something is buzzing." He also feels that the integration of sound invites people to spend more time looking at and contemplating his photographs.


Legacy

In the words of former MoMA curator Peter Galassi, Gursky's work has "the service of a polished, signature style .. [which] made his work one of the most distinctive and challenging contributions to contemporary art." Gursky helped shape new ideas of photographic 'objectivity,' because although his style had roots in straight documentation, it was undeniably brought into the cutting edge arena via the advanced technical possibilities which arose from digital art. He also helped elevate the value of contemporary photography within the art world.

Not only did Gursky blast open the door toward utilizing a massive scale to present imagery to the world, his eye for capturing the painterly aspects of an existing, everyday scene has influenced the world of contemporary photography in an enormous way, paving the way for many of today's artists working in the medium. Through artists such as Cristoffer Joergensen and Richard Caldicott who borrow from abstract practices; photographers like Paulo Catrica, Xiaovi Chen, and Vic Muniz, known for capturing large-scale public spaces; architecture explorers like Allison V. Smith; or those working with environmental and urban landscape like Hanah Collins, Mitch Dobrowner, Gregory Crewdson, Victoria Sambrunaris, and LM Chabot, we can see touches of Gursky's original impetus weaving its course through photographic art history.

Influences and Connections

Influences on artist

Artists, Friends, Movements

Influenced by artist

Artists, Friends, Movements

Andreas Gursky
Interactive chart with Andreas Gursky's main influences, and the people and ideas that the artist influenced in turn.
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View Influences Chart

Artists

Joseph BeuysJoseph Beuys
Gerhard RichterGerhard Richter
Kasper Koenig
Bernd and Hilla BecherBernd and Hilla Becher
John Davies

Friends

Movements

Industrial photography
New ObjectivityNew Objectivity
Abstract ExpressionismAbstract Expressionism
MinimalismMinimalism
Andreas Gursky
Andreas Gursky
Years Worked: 1978 - Present

Artists

Thomas StruthThomas Struth
Thomas RuffThomas Ruff
Candida Höfer
Axel Hütte
Edward Burtynsky

Friends

Sven Väth
Axel Hütte
Laurenz Berges
Thomas StruthThomas Struth
Thomas RuffThomas Ruff

Movements

Dusseldorf schoolDusseldorf school
Contemporary Landscape Photography

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Cite this page

Content compiled and written by Hope Guzzo

Edited and revised, with Synopsis and Key Ideas added by Kimberly Nichols

" Artist Overview and Analysis". [Internet]. . TheArtStory.org
Content compiled and written by Hope Guzzo
Edited and revised, with Synopsis and Key Ideas added by Kimberly Nichols
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Useful Resources on Andreas Gursky

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The books and articles below constitute a bibliography of the sources used in the writing of this page. These also suggest some accessible resources for further research, especially ones that can be found and purchased via the internet.

artworks

Andreas Gursky Recomended resource

By Peter Galassi

Andreas Gursky: Landscapes

By Terrie Sultan

Andreas Gursky

By Thomas Weski

Andreas Gursky: Architecture

By Ralf Beil

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