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Andreas Gursky Photo

Andreas Gursky

German Photographer

Movements and Styles: Dusseldorf school, Modern Photography

Born: January 15, 1955 - Leipzig, Germany

Andreas Gursky Timeline

Important Art by Andreas Gursky

The below artworks are the most important by Andreas Gursky - that both overview the major creative periods, and highlight the greatest achievements by the artist.

Gas Cooker (1980)
Artwork Images

Gas Cooker (1980)

Artwork description & Analysis: Gas Cooker (1980) is Andreas Gursky's first published photograph, depicting the lit gas stove in his Düsseldorf home. His consideration of form and texture in the piece reflects the burgeoning development of his signature style. Like his landscapes and interiors, he approaches the stove from a high vantage point in a way that is slightly unusual for the viewer. His choice of even light and a deadpan presentation of the scene emphasizes the milky fields of monotone color and causes the viewer to notice the geometry of squares, rectangles, and line within an otherwise ordinary, everyday object made further delightful by the circular rings of fire.

This image exists both in contrast and preface to the later work he is most known for. Gursky's mature work deals with globalism and capitalism in contemporary society, but this image was conceived from individual experience while cooking when "after a while I saw it as an image." Although this early photograph was not made upon complete impulse, his later work relies on extensive research and logistical planning. Gas Cooker is also one of his most 'simple' images as is a still life with a single object-as-subject instead of a scene exploring how the chosen subject interacts within its environment.

Although Gas Cooker may appear different than Gursky's later works, upon examination one can see a consistency of approach that weaves through his oeuvre.

Chromogenic Print - Private Collection

May Day II (1998)
Artwork Images

May Day II (1998)

Artwork description & Analysis: May Day II depicts a crowd of people during a concert at Mayday, the oldest and most renowned German electronic music festival that draws thousands of people every year. This image is one in a series of photographs taken at various May Day festivals the Gursky created from 1997 through 2006. Gursky has a great passion for the electronic music scene.

Upon first glimpse, the piece resembles a painting as dots of yellow light swarm in from the right of the frame to illuminate a strip of the crowd while the rest of the frame remains in pitch-black darkness. By shooting from his signature perspective of elevated distance, Gursky first delivers to the viewer a scene of color juxtaposition and distinct fields of color, withholding actual clues about the true reality of the event and its participants. Instead, in true character, he fosters an (initially) aesthetic and atmospheric experience, which similarly mirrors the act of observing a concert. It provides the experience of an international community in a public space and showcases Gursky's love of capturing vast spaces frequented by the human species.

Chromogenic Print - Private Collection

99 Cent (1999)
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99 Cent (1999)

Artwork description & Analysis: This enormous photograph (over 6 by 11 feet) depicts the interior of a Ninety-Nine Cent store in Los Angeles. The shelves are filled with stacks of mass produced and widely recognizable branded items such as Kit Kat Bars, Reese's Peanut Butter Cups, and Colgate toothpaste, all sold below their normal market value. Six white poles in the middle and background break up the sea of color, moving the viewer's eye throughout the space and calling attention to the ".99 Cent Only" posters on the walls. As the assault of color dissipates the viewer discovers the presence of shoppers walking among the aisles.

Gursky says 99 Cent was inspired by an experience on his first trip to Los Angeles when he became "directly fascinated" by a dollar store window while driving at night. The result is this immersive and beautifully composed scene, in which he lends a critical eye to issues of manufacture and exchange. His manipulation of perspective combined with the reflection of merchandise in the mirrored ceiling radiates a sense of claustrophobia and forces the viewer to confront the details of an overwhelming number of brightly packaged objects. The piece is a great example of Gursky's use of parts to inform a whole, relying on the exorbitant amount of boxed products to inform the overall composition through both color and form and compiling a message about human beings' role in consumerism.

In 2001, he made a related piece, 99 Cent II, Diptych of two Ninety-Nine Cent store interiors. The layout and color palate of these interiors are so similar to each other and to those of this photograph that they could be the same store. Although the products displayed on shelves are different, the repetition of the architecture, color and signs shows little change in terms of the mass production and marketing in the years between the two.

Chromogenic Print - San Francisco Museum of Modern Art

The Rhine II (1999)
Artwork Images

The Rhine II (1999)

Artwork description & Analysis: The Rhine II, (1999) is depicting a stretch of the river outside Düsseldorf. At first glance, the strips of creamy gray river, surrounding green grassy banks, and milky overcast sky appear like the painted strips of a Minimalist canvas, until our eyes begin to notice the details: the fluffy tufts of grass, the choppy waves, and the layers of clouds.

The Rhine II showcases Gursky's regular dialogue between painting and representation. In it we see his ability to create precieved simplicity and borderline abstraction with conceptual depth. The smooth strips of water and land move horizontally across the frame reminiscent of a Barnett Newman monochrome color field painting. This feeling caused by the abstraction touches on the ideas of the sublimity and the beauty of nature that were explored in the 18th and 19th century Romanticism period as well.

Although Gursky's work may draw comparison to painterly forebears in its visual acumen, he goes beyond these simple comparisons by making the ideas of photographic possibility a central, underlying motive in his work. For example, in making this image Gursky said that he "wasn't interested in an unusual, possibly picturesque view of the River Rhine, but in the most contemporary possible view of it" meaning he wanted to critically examine the river in the context of the current time period instead of focusing on an aestetically beautiful experience or idealized landscape. By removing "the elements that bothered me" through the use of progressive digital manipulation technology, such as buildings and people, Gursky calls attention toward recognizing those everyday spaces we populate without any remarkable narrative or distracting action. This type of innovation positioned Gursky as a forefather of the digital world, paving the way for today's influx of artists working in the medium.

Chromogenic Print - Tate Museum, London; Private Collection

Chicago, Board of Trade, II (1999)
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Chicago, Board of Trade, II (1999)

Artwork description & Analysis: This piece is a large color chromogenic print depicting the Chicago Board of Trade Building. Shot from Gursky's signature aerial viewpoint, the photograph lends a privileged birds-eye-view glimpse into the chaos and frenzy of an ordinary day on the trading room floor. Jam-packed figures bustle about a maze of railings, desks, televisions, and computer monitors as white pieces of paper litter the floor. The artist's choice of perspective, distance, double exposure and his layering of some areas visually flattens the scene, causing the figures to melt together in clusters of yellow, orange, and blue. As a whole, the scene brings to mind the frantic drips of color in a Jackson Pollock painting.

Chicago, Board of Trade, II is part of a series of related images of international stock exchanges including Singapore Simex and the Hong Kong Stock Exchange. The Chicago Board of Trade is one of the world's oldest options and futures exchanges. However, the viewer is kept at a distance that obscures details of the location, activity, and subsequent participants. Instead of examining the minute details involved in this particular business, the composition leads the eyes throughout the floor in a search of pattern, shape, and color. In this way, the image is captivating - a push/pull between comprehending the rush of activity depicted involving trade and currency and the detached aesthetic experience one gains from visually absorbing the scene.

Although actual physical space is undeniably important to Gursky, in this piece he is trying to present it in a more abstract way, attempting to understand, "not just that we are living in a certain building or in a certain location, but to become aware that we are living on a planet that is going at enormous speed through the universe...I read it more for what is going on in our world generally." With this in mind, this photograph is not simply an observation of the location, rather an investigation into two major themes of the artist's oeuvre: it is a microcosm of contemporary commerce in an epicenter of globalism.

Chromogenic Print - Museum of Contemporary Art Chicago

Bahrain I (2005)
Artwork Images

Bahrain I (2005)

Artwork description & Analysis: Bahrain I, (2005) is a photograph depicting the motorsport racetrack that plays host to Bahrain's annual Formula One Grand Prix. It is a part of a larger body of work, the F1 Boxenstopp (F1 Pit Stop) series, consisting of photographs taken at Formula One tracks throughout the world. From a lofty viewpoint, the image reveals a wide scale section of the empty black track cutting through beige desert. There is a grandstand in the center upper third of the image and a cluster of buildings in the horizon below a gray, cloudless sky - these markers allow the viewer to get a sense of what is presented, while the rest of the image looks quite abstract.

A helicopter ride helped Gursky capture a large enough portrait of the track so that the resulting portrait becomes one the viewer is not ordinarily privy to. From this perspective, and through some photo manipulation, he succeeded in transforming a basic track into rich dark ribbons reminiscent of brushstrokes weaving through sand. The piece becomes a study of the riveting sinews of physical form; the juxtaposition between color, pattern, and landscape; and an exploration of how humans physically reshape their environment, in this case for sport and entertainment.

Chromogenic Print - Tate Museum, London

Amazon (2016)
Artwork Images

Amazon (2016)

Artwork description & Analysis: Amazon (2016) is a grand thirteen by eight-foot photograph depicting the inside of an Amazon distribution center in Phoenix, Arizona. Using an elevated platform to get the desired vantage point, Gursky captured a sea of books aligned in rows in front of storage shelves containing cardboard boxes. The wide depth of field and a distinct manipulation of pixels allow the entire scene to dwell in focus thus changing the natural foreground/background relationship into "a world without hierarchy, in which all the pictorial elements are as important as each other." Digital manipulation of the original image pushes it past simple observation to an aesthetic experience of rhythmic patterns, colors, and textures.

Rhythm, in both obvious and subtle forms is an important element to Gursky's process and work. In an interview with his collaborator and friend Richie Hawtin, he draws parallels between their work - "you put the components into rhythm with each other, which is very related to my process as well. I follow a similar convention of composition in my latest works such as Amazon." Furthermore, he states, "my repetitive pictorial patterns and your minimalistic structures of sound overlap."

This center of e-commerce, Gursky says is, "a sign of our times. Amazon is a company that you can't ignore, and for me it doesn't matter if it's in Germany or the United States." Knowing that this massive quantity of books is for sale through one of the international powers of e-commerce speaks to societal patterns of the contemporary world.

Chromogenic Print



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Andreas Gursky Photo

Related Art and Artists

Autumn Rhythm: Number 30 (1950)
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Autumn Rhythm: Number 30 (1950)

Artist: Jackson Pollock

Artwork description & Analysis: While only one painting from Pollock's 1950 solo exhibition was actually sold, the show gained much attention. It was described by Art News as one of the three best exhibitions of the year, and Cecil Beaton staged a famous fashion shoot in the exhibition space, which subsequently appeared in Vogue. Autumn Rhythm was one of the major works which appeared in that show. As with many of Pollock's paintings, he began it with a linear framework of diluted black paint which in many areas soaked through the unprimed canvas. Over this he applied more skeins of paint in various colors - lines thick and thin, light and dark, straight and curved, horizontal and vertical. As the title suggests, the coloring, horizontal orientation, and sense of ground and space in Autumn Rhythm are strongly evocative of nature. The balance between control and chance that Pollock maintained throughout his working process produced compositions that can have as much calm tranquillity as some works by Rothko.

Oil on canvas - Metropolitan Museum of Art

Untitled (1969)
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Untitled (1969)

Movement: Minimalism

Artist: Donald Judd

Artwork description & Analysis: Judd was an important theoretician for Minimalism and one of the key proponents of enlivening gallery spaces by placing objects in a non-conventional manner, in his case by hanging art vertically on the wall. Throughout the 1960s and 1970s, Judd created multiple versions of this untitled work, always retaining the same scale but never using the same color or materials. He wanted his work to exist in real three-dimensional space rather than representing a fictive three-dimensional space or narrative as in traditional painting and sculpture. Referring to his sculptures as "primary structures," he discarded conventional elements of sculpture (the plinth, the figure, etc.), and instead created objects that, although oddly cold, everyday, and industrial in appearance, emphasize the upright in a way that strongly suggests a repetition of the observer's own body. Though they hang on the wall like a painting, they extend from the wall like a sculpture, thus challenging traditional distinctions between these two media. Judd's use of prefabricated industrial materials in repeated identical shapes reference factory-built commodities and the materiality of the media, while also underscoring the Minimalist goal of reducing the visible hand of the artist in order to free the work of any emotion or referentiality, something that is further underscored by the work's lack of a title.

Brass and colored fluorescent Plexiglas on steel brackets - Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden, Washington, D.C.

The Destroyed Room (1978)
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The Destroyed Room (1978)

Artist: Jeff Wall

Artwork description & Analysis: The Destroyed Room, from 1978, is one of Canadian artist Jeff Wall's first and most iconic photographs. The work consists of a large photograph printed as a cibachrome transparency within a fluorescent lightbox. Around 5 by 8 feet in size, the work is both vivid and imposing. Offering a stark view of a seemingly ravaged space the image forces the viewer to confront the destruction of items found within the typically intimate space of a bedroom. Clothes are spilling out of the drawers of a wooden dresser, a bed is turned on its side with its pale green mattress slashed, possessions such as clothing and accessories are strewn about the floor, and large pieces of the red wall are missing, exposing the pink insulation underneath.

With this photograph, Wall first began making overt references to some of the most famous examples of classical painting from the nineteenth century. In The Destroyed Room, the large-scale oil painting titled The Death of Sardanapalus, painted by Eugene Delacroix in 1827, is the source of inspiration. The painting depicts an Assyrian king, Sardanapalus, casually reclined on an enormous red bed as he watches his most prized possessions - living and non-living - being destroyed. The slaughter of concubines and servants, horses and dogs, was prompted by an invading enemy. Rather than surrender, the king decides to end his life, but not before ensuring that his belongings would never be enjoyed by anyone else. Many elements in Wall's photograph echo the visual details of Delacroix's painting, including the diagonal composition of objects from the top left corner to the bottom right corner of the frame, the bright pink and red hues that invoke the nudity of the female concubines and the blood of the violent acts, and the likely evidence of physical struggle.

While The Death of Sardanapalus depicts an act of violence as it occurs, Wall shows an aftermath. Whereas the painting shows the luxurious space of a male ruler, the photograph seems to show a woman's small living space. Wall's work is devoid of people, though, leaving the viewer to imagine who might have occupied the space and why the room became destroyed. However, Wall has purposely left remnants of the staging process of the scene in the final image, making the fabrication of the room obvious. Upon scrutiny, it's possible to see that at least one of the room's three walls is only barely supported with wooden beams. In an article entitled "The Luminist" in The New York Times Magazine on the occasion of Wall's retrospective exhibition in 2007, Arthur Lubow remarks how Wall has admitted that he enjoys the process of artistry just as much as the final product.

In The Destroyed Room, Wall not only hints at the creative process, but also engages with the questions raised by Conceptual artists of the time. Throughout the 1970s, photography was increasingly used by artists to call attention to the fabricated quality of art and the performance of subject matter and ideas within artworks. For these artists, including Wall, photography was freed from its role of visually capturing the real world. By creating a large-scale, fictional image that recalls the grandeur and narrative of classical painting, Wall challenges the documentary role that photography often plays. But by mounting the image in a lightbox, his work also resembles imagery from cinema or advertising found in popular, contemporary culture. Thus, Wall simultaneously highlights the real and imagined in art, raising photography to the level of fine art typically held by painting over the ages while referencing elements of the modern day.

Cibachrome transparency in fluorescent lightbox - The National Gallery of Canada, Ottawa

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Content compiled and written by Hope Guzzo

Edited and revised by Kimberly Nichols

" Artist Overview and Analysis". [Internet]. . TheArtStory.org
Content compiled and written by Hope Guzzo
Edited and revised by Kimberly Nichols
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