The Art Story.org - Your Guide to Modern Art

MovementsArtistsTimelinesIdeasBlog
Artists Juan Gris

Juan Gris

Spanish Painter, Illustrator, and Sculptor

Movement: Cubism

Born: March 23 1887 - Madrid, Spain

Died: May 11 1927 - Boulogne-sur-Seine, France

Quotes

"I prefer the emotion that corrects the rule."
Juan Gris
"You are lost the moment you know what the result will be."
Juan Gris
"I make a composition with a white and a black, and make adjustments when the white has become a paper and the black a shadow."
Juan Gris
"I try to make concrete that which is abstract."
Juan Gris
"Cubism is moving around an object to seize several successive appearances, which fused in a single image, reconstitute it in time."
Juan Gris
"Four years partly illness much perfection and rejoining beauty and perfection and then at the end there came a definite creation of something. This is what is to be measured."
Gertrude Stein from The Life and Death of Juan Gris
From Our Sponsor
From Our Sponsor

"Cezanne made a cylinder out of a bottle. I start from the cylinder to create a special kind of individual object. I make a bottle out of a cylinder."

Synopsis

One of Gertrude Stein's favorite artists, and the only Cubist talented enough to make Picasso uncomfortable, Juan Gris built upon the foundations of early Cubism and steered the movement in new directions. A member of the tight-knit circle of avant-garde artists working in Paris, Gris adopted the radically fragmented picture spaces of Pablo Picasso and Georges Braque, imparting to his works a bold, graphic look. Gris's paintings are immediately distinguishable from theirs, informed by his background as an illustrator, with a slick, almost commercial appearance, and crisp design elements throughout.

Key Ideas

Whereas Picasso and Braque delighted in destroying the conventions of painting, Gris's chief aim was to please the eye. As the artist himself put it, 'I prefer the emotion that corrects the rule'. Despite his radical treatment of the picture space, his well-balanced compositions, saturated colors, and traditional subjects popularized the avant-garde movement.
Like Picasso and Braque, he incorporated newsprint and advertisements into his work. Whereas they tended to snip these elements into smithereens, however, he leaves more of the original pieces of ads and newsprint intact, as if to preserve the integrity of the originals. In lifting popular culture into the realm of high art, he is an important forerunner of Dada and Pop artists, among them Marcel Duchamp, Stuart Davis, and Andy Warhol.
He was among the visionaries (poets, choreographers, musicians and visual artists) who built pathways among the arts. His costumes for the Ballet Russes show his commitment to interdisciplinary collaboration, an idea that gathered momentum and became central to contemporary art.

Most Important Art

Portrait of Picasso (1912)
Gris idolized Picasso. A clever tribute to his mentor, his portrait depicts Picasso (founder of Cubism) in the Cubist style. Palette at the ready, Picasso is literally larger than life (taking up most of the space on the canvas). Working primarily in cool hues of blue, gray, and brown, he fractures the sitter's face into a prism of planes and geometric shapes that resolve into the parallel lines in the background. All parts of this picture seem to be in motion. While he and his fellow practitioners produced many more chaotic images, elements of formal portraiture, such as the legibility of the sitter's features, symmetry of the pose, and high-collared jacket (as opposed to a painter's smock), indicate his respect for the subject. It is entirely in keeping with the Cubist mission, however, in its divergence from traditional representation and effort to capture the dynamism of modern life.
Read More ...

Juan Gris Artworks in Focus:
From Our Sponsor. Article Continues Below

Biography

Childhood

The man who would become Juan Gris, one of the leading figures in Cubist painting, was born José Victoriano Carmelo Carlos González-Pérez in Madrid in 1887. The thirteenth of fourteen children, he attended Madrid's Escuela de Artes y Manufacturas from 1902 to 1904, where he studied mathematics, physics, and mechanical drawing. Though he was a strong student, the rigidity of academic life did not appeal to him, and his natural ability in drawing encouraged him to shift his focus to the study of art.

Early Training

After leaving school, he studied painting under the tutelage of José Moreno Carbonero, a respected and sucessful artist in Madrid who had himself taught Salvador Dalí and Picasso. It was in 1905, while working under Carbonero, that González-Pérez changed his name to Juan Gris. He sold all his possessions and moved to Paris in 1906, shortly after the death of his father, and would remain in the city for much of his life. However, since he had dodged Spain's obligatory military service, he had no passport and could neither leave France nor return to Spain.

During his early years in Paris, he worked as an illustrator and satirical cartoonist for a variety of magazines and periodicals. He settled in the Montmartre artist commune Bateau Lavoir, where he met Picasso, Braque, Matisse, and the American writer Gertrude Stein, who would become a lifelong admirer and collector of his work. As he developed relationships with fellow artists, he began to devote more energy to his own painting. Following in the footsteps of Picasso and Braque, he initially worked in the style he would later define as Analytic Cubism, known for its monochromatic color, use of linear grids, and breaking down of a subject into geometric planes. While he clearly had enormous respect for Picasso, the older man may have been threatened by the younger's talents, or simply annoyed by his flattery, leading Stein to note that, "Juan Gris was the only person whom Picasso wished away."

Despite the lopsided nature of their relationship, his portrait of his mentor attracted the acclaim of fellow artists and critics when it was exhibited at the Salon des Independants in 1912. That same year, he signed a contract that gave the German art dealer Daniel-Henry Kahnweiler (who also worked with Picasso and Braque) the exclusive right to sell his work. After several years of financial difficulties in Paris, the arrangement gave him greater stability and allowed his work to reach a broader and more influential audience.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Juan Gris Biography Continues

Mature Period

Juan Gris Photo

Though many recognized his talent in its own right, his work followed the austere monochromatic style of Analytic Cubism in the early 1910s, and moved in the direction of Synthetic Cubism - a subsequent phase, distinguished by a broader, bolder use of color and a collage-like approach to composition - from 1914 onward. Departing from Picasso and Braque somewhat, his work from the latter period is distinguished by its move away from shattering abstraction and use of bright, harmonious colors in daring combinations.

As was the case for many artists of the time, the outbreak of World War I threw his personal and professional life into a state of flux. The war disrupted his business relationship with Kahnweiler, though he received financial help from Gertrude Stein. He also spent time with Matisse in his studio at Collioure, in the south of France near the Spanish border. In 1916, he signed a new contract with French art dealer Leonce Rosenberg, another hugely influential collector of modernist art. His work from the early war years examines the interplay between objects and their shadows, and reintroduces complicated planar intersections, sumptuous colors and textures.

Toward the end of the war, he spent several months in Touraine, the native region of his French wife Josette. This period, unique in his art, focuses on depictions of traditional peasant figures, linking him to a broader shift among European artists during and after the war. Increasingly, these artists turned away from the avant-garde disruptions and reinterpretations of form that marked the early 1910s, and instead approached traditional techniques and subject matter with renewed interest that would persist throughout the remainder of his career.

Though he experienced periods of illness and financial strife during the war years, his reputation was steadily rising. He was awarded his first major solo exhibition at Rosenberg's Galerie l'Effort Moderne in Paris in 1919. The following year, he participated in the final major exhibition of Cubist painters at the Salon des Independants.

Late Period

He had been painting prolifically during and after the war, though in 1920 he became ill with pleurisy, a lung inflammation then often confused with tuberculosis. In an attempt to recuperate, he spent the winter at Bandol, on the southeastern coast of France. While there, he spent time with the Russian ballet impresario Sergei Diaghilev, and the two discussed ideas about staging and costumes for upcoming productions. Their conversations eventually yielded a full collaboration, with Gris designing costumes and sets for the Ballet Russes from 1922 to 1924.

Major exhibitions of his work took place at the Galerie Simon in Paris and the Galerie Flechtheim in Berlin in 1923, and at the Galerie Flechtheim in Dusseldorf in 1925. It was during these years that he achieved the peak of popularity and renown that he would know in his lifetime. He was also making his most forceful articulation of his theories on art and aesthetics, delivering his lecture, 'Des possibilites de la peinture' at the Sorbonne in 1924. In it, he describes his belief that a painting was not merely a representation of an object from reality, but something that the artist recreates and reinterprets through his craft.

He was unable to bask in his successes for long, due to ongoing - and worsening - health problems. In 1922, he moved out of central Paris to the suburban area of Boulogne-sur-Seine, in the hopes that a quieter rural atmosphere would ease his chronic asthma. From late 1925 onward, he battled consistent kidney and cardiac ailments. He died in 1927 of kidney failure, leaving behind his wife and young son. He was only 40 years old. In response to Gris's death, Stein wrote a memorial titled The Life and Death of Juan Gris, in which she describes him as "a perfect painter."


Legacy

He established himself as one of the most distinctive figures in Cubism during his relatively short life. His paintings combine different viewpoints of a subject in one image, calling attention to the limitations of traditional perspective and striving toward a new way of seeing that reflects the complexity of the modern age. Though primarily associated with painting, Cubism also exerted a profound influence on twentieth-century sculpture and architecture. The liberating formal concepts initiated by Cubism also had far-reaching consequences for Surrealism, Dada, and the rise of midcentury Abstract Expressionism. While Picasso and Braque are most often credited with creating the new visual language of Cubism, his distinctive interpretation of the style directly influenced artists such as Salvador Dali, Joseph Cornell, and Diego Rivera, among many others. In The Secret Life, Dali writes, "my first cubist paintings... were directly and intentionally influenced by Juan Gris." His incorporation of brand logos and newspaper typography also anticipates the Pop Art movement in the years following the Second World War, particularly in the works of artists such as Andy Warhol and Roy Lichtenstein.

From Our Sponsor. Article Continues Below

Influences and Connections

Influences on artist

Artists, Friends, Movements

Influenced by artist

Artists, Friends, Movements

Juan Gris
Interactive chart with Juan Gris's main influences, and the people and ideas that the artist influenced in turn.
- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
View Influences Chart

Artists

Jean Metzinger
Robert Delaunay

Friends

Pablo Picasso
Georges Braque
Henri Matisse

Movements

Cubism
Juan Gris
Juan Gris
Years Worked: 1906 - 1927

Artists

Joseph Cornell
Diego Rivera
Andy Warhol

Friends

Salvador Dalí
Sergei Diaghilev

Movements

Cubism
Surrealism
Abstract Expressionism
Pop Art



By submitting the above you agree to The Art Story privacy policy.

Useful Resources on Juan Gris

Books
Websites
Articles
Videos
The books and articles below constitute a bibliography of the sources used in the writing this page. These also suggest some accessible resources for further research, especially ones that can be found and purchased via the internet.
biography
Juan Gris: His Life and Work

By Daniel-Henry Kahnweiler

Juan Gris

By Christopher Green

paintings
Juan Gris Catalogue Raisonne

By Douglas Cooper, Alan Hyman, Elizabeth Snowden, Juan Gris

Juan Gris (The Museum of Modern Art publication in reprint)

By James T. Soby

More Interesting Books about Juan Gris
Your Paintings

Explore Juan Gris' works in England's National Collection

The Brevity of Juan Gris

By Dan Hofstadter
The New Criterion
February 1984

Art View; Juan Gris: the Other Cubist

By John Russell
The New York Times
October 23, 1983

Early Cubist Source Material

By Katherine Borkowski
Metropolitan Museum
January 21, 2015

The Life and Death of Juan Gris

By Gertrude Stein
1927

Leonard A. Lauder discussing Gris's Still Life with Checked Tablecloth.

Metropolitan Museum of Art
MetCollects - Episode 10: Leonard A. Lauder on Juan Gris's Still Life with Checked Tablecloth

Gallery Talk: Juan Gris' 'Nature morte a la nappe a carreaux'

Jay Vincze, Head of Christie's Impressionist and Modern Art Department

From Our Sponsor
If you see an error or typo, please:
tell us
Cite this page

Content compiled and written by The Art Story Contributors

Edited and revised by Ruth Epstein

" Artist Overview and Analysis". [Internet]. . TheArtStory.org
Content compiled and written by The Art Story Contributors
Edited and revised by Ruth Epstein
Available from:
[Accessed ]

Gertrude Stein
Gertrude Stein
Gertrude Stein
Gertrude Stein was an American writer and supporter of the arts whose Paris salons were key sites for avant-garde art in the early twentieth century. She built one of the earliest collections of modern art, including works by Matisse, Picasso, Braque, and others.
Gertrude Stein
Pablo Picasso
Pablo Picasso
Pablo Picasso
Picasso dominated European painting in the first half of the last century, and remains perhaps the century's most important, prolifically inventive, and versatile artist. Alongside Georges Braque, he pioneered Cubism. He also made significant contributions to Surrealist painting and media such as collage, welded sculpture, and ceramics.
TheArtStory: Pablo Picasso
Georges Braque
Georges Braque
Georges Braque
Georges Braque was a modern French painter who, along with Pablo Picasso, developed analytic Cubism and Cubist collage in the early twentieth century.
TheArtStory: Georges Braque
Marcel Duchamp
Marcel Duchamp
Marcel Duchamp
The French artist Marcel Duchamp was an instrumental figure in the avant-garde art worlds of Paris and New York. Moving through Dada, Surrealism, readymades, sculpture, and installation, his work involves conceptual play and an implicit attack on bourgeois art sensibilities.
TheArtStory: Marcel Duchamp
Stuart Davis
Stuart Davis
Stuart Davis
Stuart Davis Cubist-inspired, but American themes, and his visual manifestation of jazz music were important in the development of movements from Abstract Expressionism to Pop art. He was one of the youngest artists represented at the 1913 Armory Show and taught many young artists in New York City.
TheArtStory: Stuart Davis
Andy Warhol
Andy Warhol
Andy Warhol
Andy Warhol was an American Pop artist best known for his prints and paintings of consumer goods, celebrities, and photographed disasters. One of the most famous and influential artists of the 1960s, he pioneered compositions and techniques that emphasized repetition and the mechanization of art.
TheArtStory: Andy Warhol
Salvador Dalí
Salvador Dalí
Salvador Dalí
Salvador Dalí was a Spanish Surrealist painter who combined a hyperrealist style with dream-like, sexualized subject matter. His collaborations with Hollywood and commercial ventures, alongside his notoriously dramatic personality, earned him scorn from some Surrealist colleagues.
TheArtStory: Salvador Dalí
Cubism
Cubism
Cubism
Cubism was developed by Pablo Picasso and Georges Braque between 1907-1911, and it continued to be highly influential long after its decline. This classic phase has two stages: 'Analytic', in which forms seem to be 'analyzed' and fragmented; and 'Synthetic', in which pre-existing materials such as newspaper and wood veneer are collaged to the surface of the canvas.
TheArtStory: Cubism
Jean Metzinger
Jean Metzinger
Jean Metzinger
Jean Metzinger was a French artist who was initially influenced by Fauvism and Impressionism, but then turned to Cubism. Metzinger was a member of the Section d'Or group of artists. In 1912, together with Albert Gleizes, he created the first major treatise on Cubism, Du Cubisme.
Jean Metzinger
Robert Delaunay
Robert Delaunay
Robert Delaunay
Robert Delaunay was a French avant-garde painter. Early in his career he was associated with the Expressionist group The Blue Rider along with Kandinsky and Klee. Delaunay's singular style is referred to as Orphism; an approach that combines visual elements of Cubism, Expressionism and figurative abstraction.
TheArtStory: Robert Delaunay
Henri Matisse
Henri Matisse
Henri Matisse
Henri Matisse was a French painter and sculptor who helped forge modern art. From his early Fauvist works to his late cutouts, he emphasized expansive fields of color, the expressive potential of gesture, and the sensuality inherent in art-making.
TheArtStory: Henri Matisse
Joseph Cornell
Joseph Cornell
Joseph Cornell
Joseph Cornell was an American artist, best known for his collage work and "shadow boxes," which were highly complex diorama-like constructions. Cornell incorporated found objects, old photos, newspaper clippings and other objects into these boxes, resulting in uniquely surreal, three-dimensional worlds. Cornell was one of the few American artists associated with Surrealism.
TheArtStory: Joseph Cornell
Diego Rivera
Diego Rivera
Diego Rivera
Diego Rivera was the principal actor in the Mexican Muralism movement and one of Mexico's greatest artists. His large-scale fresco cycles tell the histories of labor, industry, society, and other themes.
TheArtStory: Diego Rivera
Sergei Diaghilev
Sergei Diaghilev
Sergei Diaghilev
Sergei Diaghilev was a Russian art critic, patron, ballet impresario and founder of the Ballets Russes, from which many famous dancers and choreographers would rise. The end of the nineteenth century brought changes in harmonic and metric devices. They became either more rigid, or much more unpredictable, and each approach had a liberating effect on rhythm, which also affected ballet. Diaghilev was a pioneer in adapting these new musical styles to modern ballet.
Sergei Diaghilev
Surrealism
Surrealism
Surrealism
Perhaps the most influential avant-garde movement of the century, Surrealism was founded in Paris in 1924 by a small group of writers and artists who sought to channel the unconscious as a means to unlock the power of the imagination. Much influenced by Freud, they believed that the conscious mind repressed the power of the imagination. Influenced also by Marx, they hoped that the psyche had the power to reveal the contradictions in the everyday world and spur on revolution.
TheArtStory: Surrealism
Abstract Expressionism
Abstract Expressionism
Abstract Expressionism
A tendency among New York painters of the late 1940s and '50s, all of whom were committed to an expressive art of profound emotion and universal themes. The movement embraced the gestural abstraction of Willem de Kooning and Jackson Pollock, and the color field painting of Mark Rothko and others. It blended elements of Surrealism and abstract art in an effort to create a new style fitted to the postwar mood of anxiety and trauma.
TheArtStory: Abstract Expressionism
Pop Art
Pop Art
Pop Art
British artists of the 1950s were the first to make popular culture the dominant subject of their art, and this idea became an international phenomenon in the 1960s. But the Pop art movement is most associated with New York, and artists such as Andy Warhol, who broke with the private concerns of the Abstract Expressionists, and turned to themes which touched on public life and mass society.
TheArtStory: Pop Art
Did we succeed in explaining the art to you?
If Yes, please tell others about us:
>