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Antoni Gaudí

Catalan Architect and Designer

Movements and Styles: Art Nouveau, Modern Architecture

Born: June 25, 1852 - Reus, Catalonia, Spain

Died: June 10, 1926 - Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain

Antoni Gaudí Timeline

Quotes

"Gothic art is imperfect, only half resolved; it is a style created by the compasses, a formulaic industrial repetition. Its stability depends on constant propping up by the buttresses: it is a defective body held up on crutches....The proof that Gothic works are of deficient plasticity is that they produce their greatest emotional effect when they are mutilated, covered in ivy and lit by the moon."
Antoni Gaudí
"Paraboloids, hyperboloids and helicoids, constantly varying the incidence of the light, are rich in matrices themselves, which make ornamentation and even modeling unnecessary."
Antoni Gaudí
"Light achieves maximum harmony at an inclination of 45°, since it resides on objects in a way that is neither horizontal nor vertical. This can be considered medium light, and it offers the most perfect vision of objects and their most exquisite nuances. It is the Mediterranean light."
Antoni Gaudí
"Color in certain places has the great value of making the outlines and structural planes seem more energetic."
Antoni Gaudí
"Those who look for the laws of Nature as a support for their new works collaborate with the creator."
Antoni Gaudí
"There are no straight lines or sharp corners in nature. Therefore, buildings must have no straight lines or sharp corners."
Antoni Gaudí
"My good friends are dead; I have no family and no clients, no fortune nor anything. Now I can dedicate myself entirely to the Church."
Antoni Gaudí

"We own the image. Fantasy comes from the ghosts. Fantasy is what people in the North own. We are concrete. The image comes from the Mediterranean. Orestes knows his way, where Hamlet is torn apart by his doubts."

Antoni Gaudí Signature

Synopsis

It is difficult for us today to believe that the most famous modern Spanish architect met his demise when, at age 73, he was run over by a tram and assumed to be an ordinary beggar for a full day before he was finally identified, too late to be nursed back to health. Yet Antoni Gaudí's pious Catholicism and devotion to a spartan regimen had come to define his character almost completely by the last decade of his life, which he devoted almost exclusively to the construction of his arguably most famous work, the Sagrada Família church in Barcelona. Over Gaudí's nearly fifty years of independent practice, he concocted and realized some of the most imaginative architectural forms in history, all of them in his native Catalonia, which have since become synonymous with the region's identity. The best-known - and most individualistic - representative of Catalan Modernisme (Art Nouveau), Gaudí has fascinated and inspired generations of architects, designers, and even engineers. Today his work attracts a global following with some of the most distinctive, idiosyncratic, and recognizable designs of all time.

Key Ideas

Gaudí's was highly innovative in terms of his explorations of structure, searching through a variety of regional styles before seizing on the parabolic, hyperbolic, and catenary masonry forms and inclined columns that he developed through weighted models in his workshop. These are often integrated with natural and highly symbolic religious imagery that encrust the structure with vibrant, colorful surfaces.
Gaudí's work is the most inventive, daring, and flamboyant of Catalan Modernisme (the Catalan strand of Art Nouveau) designers, but it is not uncharacteristic of the movement as a whole.
Gaudí's work is highly personal, in part due to his devout Catholicism, a faith that became increasingly fervent as his career progressed. In part because of this, his work contains many references to religious themes, and he increasingly led an ascetic existence towards the end of his life, even giving up all other commissions to focus on his designs for the church known as the Sagrada Família.
Gaudí often collaborated with several other Catalan designers, industrialists, artists, and craftsmen on his projects, most prominently Josep María Jujol, who was often responsible for the broken tilework (trencadís) that is common to much of Gaudí's buildings. This helps to explain why Gaudí's structures often feature such a wide variety of materials, used in inventive and clever ways.

Most Important Art

Antoni Gaudí Famous Art

Expiatory Church of the Sagrada Família (1882 - present)

The Sagrada Família remains Gaudí's most famous - and most controversial - building. When finished, it will be the tallest, if not one of the largest, churches in the world. The project is an immense undertaking, to which Gaudí was appointed in 1883 (officially in 1884), a year after its conception. It occupied him continuously for the rest of his life, and when he died in 1926, the basilica was only about 20 percent complete (despite Gaudí's exclusive focus in the last twelve years of his life). It is representative of the architect's devout Catholic faith, as Gaudí knew that he would not come close to live to see its completion, but this did not deter him. Once, when questioned about its timeline, he supposedly replied, "My client is not in a hurry."

Paul Goldberger has declared Gaudí's church to be "[t]he most extraordinary personal interpretation of Gothic architecture since the Middle Ages," and indeed the building, like many of Gaudí's other works, can be rightly compared to the timeline, craftsmanship, and formal qualities of the great Gothic cathedrals of the Middle Ages. It may be truly the "last" real Gothic building, as its various facades are covered in didactic sculptural decoration from the life of Christ and it uses a five-aisle Latin cross plan reminiscent of traditional Catholic cathedral architecture. It is not, however, the cathedral church of the Archdiocese of Barcelona.

The Sagrada Família also represents arguably the culmination of Gaudí's parabolic and catenary structural system, evident in numerous other designs, including the unbuilt scheme for the Colònia Güell church outside Barcelona. Not surprisingly, Gaudí's designs only use curved forms - an homage to the conditions of nature, in which, Gaudí declared, "there are no straight lines." Nonetheless, many of Gaudí's ideas for the completion of the church were lost in a fire that destroyed the workshop on the site during the Spanish Civil War in July 1936; subsequently, the project's chief architects have tried to piece together Gaudí's original vision in concert with their own designs for the structure. In some ways this is in keeping with Gaudí's wishes, as most of his works had been collaborative efforts with numerous other craftsmen and designers, and knowing that he would not live to see the church's completion, he envisioned the finished product to be a collaborative inter-generational design.

The church, which has welcomed visitors ever since Gaudí's time, is today about 70% finished, with the last phase of work to be completed consisting of the raising of the six massive central spires, and its structure (minus the exterior decoration and embellishments) is scheduled to take place in 2026. While admired by many, including Louis Sullivan and Walter Gropius, it has had its detractors, including the architectural historian Nikolaus Pevsner and the writer George Orwell. Others have called for work to be terminated definitively, citing large expenses (the annual budget for construction runs to 25 million euros), though the construction has always been funded by donors or, more recently, by visitors' entry fees, not by government or church sources. Yet it remains a prized landmark (even well before completion) and one of the most recognizable symbols of Catalonia and Barcelona and likely will for decades to come.
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Antoni Gaudí Artworks in Focus:

Biography

Childhood In Reus

Antoni Plàcid Guillem Gaudí i Cornet was born in Reus, Catalonia, south of Barcelona on the Mediterranean coast, in June 1852. His birthplace is the question of a small controversy, as precise documentation is nonexistent and sometimes it is claimed that he was born in the neighboring municipality of Riudoms, his paternal family's native village (though he was baptized the day after his birth in the church of Sant Pere Apòstol in Reus). He was the youngest of five children born to Francesc Gaudí i Serra, a coppersmith, and his wife, Antònia Cornet i Bertran. Gaudí's family had roots in the Auvergne region of southern France.

Gaudí (bottom left), his father (center), doctor, and niece Rosa at Montserrat, 1904
Gaudí (bottom left), his father (center), doctor, and niece Rosa at Montserrat, 1904

From the beginning, Gaudí exhibited a great appreciation for nature and especially the environment of his native region of Catalonia. He eventually became a very enthusiastic outdoorsman, joining the club called the Centre Excursionista de Catalunya in 1879 (which took many trips into the countryside of the region and southern France). Despite his zeal for the outdoors, Gaudí was sickly as a youth with various ailments, including rheumatism, which seem to have contributed to his reserved character.

Move to Barcelona and Architectural Education

Gaudí spent most of his time up to the age 16 in Reus, where he attended nursery school with Francesc Berenguer, who would become one of his assistants, and worked in a textile mill. In 1868 he moved to Barcelona to study teaching in a convent. While there he became interested in utopian socialist ideas and together with two of his fellow students he conjured up a plan to transform the Poblet Monastery into a utopian phalanstery, a communal, experimental institution proposed by Charles Fourier and other philosophers of the age.

Gaudí completed four years of compulsory military service starting in 1875, but poor health meant that he spent much of his time on sick leave, which enabled him to enroll at first the Llotja School and then the Barcelona Higher School of Architecture, from which he graduated with a degree in architecture in 1878. Health problems seem to have been pervasive in Gaudí's family at the time, as in 1876 his mother died, as did his older brother Francesc, who, ironically, had just become a physician.

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Antoni Gaudí Biography Continues

Nonetheless, the young Gaudí quickly developed the rudiments and connections that would propel him to professional success. He became a draftsman for some of Barcelona's most renowned architects; including Joan Martorell, Josep Fontserè, and Leandre Serrallach - employment which helped pay for his studies. During this time Gaudí produced one of the few surviving handwritten documents attributable to him: the so-called "Reus Manuscript," essentially a student diary in which Gaudí recorded his impressions of architecture and interior decor, and setting forth his early ideas on these topics.

Independent Practice

Gaudí began to garner his own clients even before his graduation in 1878. That year, he produced a showcase for the glove manufacturer Camella at the Exposition Universelle (World's Fair) in Paris, which caught the attention of the textile manufacturer Eusebi Güell, who immediately asked Gaudí to design the furniture of the pantheon chapel of the Palacio de Sobrellano in Comillas (the structure was being designed by Gaudí's former employer and mentor, Joan Martorell). Eventually Eusebi Güell would commission Gaudí for no fewer than five major projects over the next thirty-five years.

In 1877, Gaudí received his first significant commission, the Casa Vicens, a residence for Manuel Vicens i Montaner, a local brick and tile manufacturer, which effectively established Gaudí's reputation in Barcelona. In 1883, the same year the Casa Vicens was completed, Gaudí began his work on the Sagrada Família in Barcelona.

Through a commission in 1878 for the Workers' Cooperative of Mataró building, Gaudí became attracted to Josefa Moreu, a teacher there, but she apparently did not return his affections. She was the only woman for whom Gaudí ever expressed romantic interest, and thereafter he buried himself in work for the remainder of his life, with his Catholic faith gaining an ever-greater hold over his psyche after the rejection. In 1885, he moved briefly to the rural town of Sant Feliu de Codines in order to escape a cholera epidemic, staying in Francesc Ullar's residence. Grateful for the emergency lodging, Gaudí designed a dinner table in return for the housing.

Gaudí's exposition license for the 1888 World's Fair in Barcelona
Gaudí's exposition license for the 1888 World's Fair in Barcelona

The 1888 World's Fair brought the spotlight to Barcelona, and the city received major improvements, including the expansion of electric service, which was exhibited prominently at night by arches of lights that spanned the width of the city's major boulevards. Gaudí was awarded the job of designing the pavilion of the Compania Trasatlantica, a shipping company owned by the Marquis of Comillas, which was notable for its use of horseshoe arches and led to a few restoration jobs for Gaudí from the Barcelona city council.

Patronage by the Güell Family

Gaudí (center left) and Eusebi Güell (center right) visiting the Colònia Güell in Santa Coloma de Cervelló (1910)
Gaudí (center left) and Eusebi Güell (center right) visiting the Colònia Güell in Santa Coloma de Cervelló (1910)

Gaudí received the bulk of his important commissions from Eusebi Güell; the two men had much in common, including their devout Catholic faith. These began in 1884 with the designs for the Güell Pavilions, the outbuildings for Güell's summer house in Pedralbes, Catalonia, and continued with Gaudí's work on the Palau Güell (1886 - 88), the family home in central Barcelona, which is today open to the public for visits. In 1890, Güell moved his factories to the town of Santa Coloma de Cervelló and asked Gaudí to design a community for his workers. Gaudí worked on the project for nearly 30 years before Güell's sons abandoned the project in 1918. Between 1895 and 1897, Gaudí built the Bodegas Güell, a winery and hunting lodge at La Cuadra de Garraf. And in 1900 Gaudí began the large landscape development called the Parc Güell that occupied him until 1914.

Güell was among Gaudí's most prominent friends to describe him amicably, as a pleasant person to talk to, polite, and faithful to his close associates, a contrast with some reports that depict Gaudí as gruff, aloof, and unsociable. Early in his career, Gaudí played the part of a socialite, reputedly dressing in fancy suits and frequently attending events such as the theater, opera, indulging an appetite for gourmet food (apparently, despite his vegetarian diet), and arriving at his job sites in a horse-drawn carriage. This changed dramatically as time passed, as his faith prompted him to lead a far more ascetic lifestyle.

It is worth noting, however, that Gaudí did cultivate a much wider clientele than merely the Güell family; he also designed numerous private houses, apartment blocks, industrial and office buildings, and a large number of church-related commissions, including several restorations. In 1908, Gaudí was even asked by two American entrepreneurs, whose names remain a mystery, to design a skyscraper for New York, called the Hotel Attraction, distinguished by a parabolic central tower intended to be taller than the Empire State Building and topped by a star motif.

Catalan Nationalism

Gaudí was rarely directly involved in political activities, despite his frequent use of Catalan motifs in his buildings, which disclose his deep allegiance to his native region. He maintained close links with regional artist societies, including the Catholic Cercle Artístic de Sant Lluc (Artistic Circle of St. Luke), which he joined in 1899. But he steadfastly refused urgings from associates and friends to run for office, as a few of his fellow Modernisme architects had done. Gaudí did, however, attend demonstrations. He was beaten by police during a riot in Barcelona in 1920, and in September 1924, the National Day of Catalonia, Gaudí was beaten and arrested at a protest against the dictator Primo de Rivera's ban on the use of the Catalan language. He was briefly jailed, then released on 50 pesetas bail.

Last Years and Death

Gaudí (with white beard) showing the Papal nuncio Cardinal Francesco Ragonesi the progress of construction on the Sagrada Família, Barcelona, 1915
Gaudí (with white beard) showing the Papal nuncio Cardinal Francesco Ragonesi the progress of construction on the Sagrada Família, Barcelona, 1915

After 1914, Gaudí, whose devotion to his Catholic faith had become nearly his only interest outside of his architectural practice, ceased work on all other projects besides the Sagrada Família, which occupied him until his death in 1926. On June 7 of that year, he was walking from work to his daily prayer and confession at the church of Sant Filip Neri when he was struck by tram on the Gran Via de les Corts Catalanes and lost consciousness. His shabby clothes and lack of identifying documents meant that he was assumed to be a beggar, and medical treatment was delayed almost a day as a result. He was finally identified by the chaplain of the Sagrada Família but his condition had taken a turn for the worse, and he passed on a few days later. Gaudí was given a funeral attended by a very large crowd, and buried in the Sagrada Família's crypt, though the church remained far from completed at his death.


Legacy

Gaudí's funeral in the Sagrada Família, Barcelona, 12 June 1926
Gaudí's funeral in the Sagrada Família, Barcelona, 12 June 1926

Gaudí's impact is difficult to quantify. His fame grew - even internationally - during his lifetime, but the appreciation of his work began to fade after his death. During the Spanish Civil War (1936-39), during which the city of Barcelona suffered significantly, as it was the last holdout against Franco's Nationalist forces, the workshop at the Sagrada Família was burned, and many of Gaudí's extant drawings and famed models (his preferred working method of design) were lost. Work stopped for a time on the Sagrada Família, and well into the 1990s the question has been raised as to whether work on the structure should stop altogether.

The rise of the International Style, particularly in the 1940s and '50s, did much to turn public opinion against Art Nouveau, and Gaudí's highly unusual works were often derided as fantastical and in some cases backwards. As late as 1993, the architectural historian Neil Levine characterized the gatehouses to the Parc Güell as something that gnomes would jump out from to frighten passing visitors.

Gaudí participating in a religious procession on the Catholic feast day of Corpus Christi in Barcelona, 1924
Gaudí participating in a religious procession on the Catholic feast day of Corpus Christi in Barcelona, 1924

The appreciation of Gaudí's work has only magnified, however, since 1960, with the writings of scholars such as George Collins, Judith Rohrer, Ignaci de Sola-Morales, and Gaudí's students, including Cèsar Martinell, and others that have helped bring Gaudí and Catalan Modernisme even greater international renown. Gaudí is respected today as an innovator in many ways. Though long described as an Art Nouveau architect, most recent appraisals have emphasized his singular genius amongst his Catalan and European contemporaries.

Though well aware of the rich and varied architectural past in Catalonia due to its Mediterranean location, Gaudí did not remain a revivalist. He was more daring with his experiments in parabolic structures that he studied using models in his workshop. These forms, combined with a richness of the decorative surfaces and materials common to many Catalan structures, mean that his buildings will continue to attract notice well into the future.

Today Gaudí's global fame as a designer is assured, and seven of his buildings in Barcelona are listed by UNESCO as World Heritage Sites. Numerous tributes to Gaudí include his beatification by the Catholic Church in 2000; Christopher Rouse's guitar concerto Gaudí (1999), a musical of the same title from 2002, the Gaudí awards by the Catalan Film Academy, and an Iberia Airbus A340 jet named after him. Perhaps most significant is the anticipated completion of the church of the Sagrada Família (now projected for 2026) on the centenary of Gaudí's death; such an event should bring the career of this legendary architect to an appropriate and dramatic conclusion.

Influences and Connections

Influences on artist

Artists, Friends, Movements

Influenced by artist

Artists, Friends, Movements

Antoni Gaudí
Interactive chart with Antoni Gaudí's main influences, and the people and ideas that the artist influenced in turn.
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View Influences Chart

Artists

Victor HortaVictor Horta
Hector GuimardHector Guimard
Eugène-Emmanuel Viollet-le-Duc
Joan Martorell
Josep Fontserè

Friends

Eusebi Güell
Josep María Jujol
Leandre Serrallach
Francisco de Paula del Villar i Lozano
Emili Sala Cortés

Movements

Art NouveauArt Nouveau
Antoni Gaudí
Antoni Gaudí
Years Worked: 1875 - 1926

Artists

Llorenç Matamala
Josep Francesc Ràfols
Joan Bergós
Cèsar Martinell
Joan Rubió

Friends

Pere Santaló
Joan Maragall
Jacint Verdaguer
Joan Llimona
Francesc Berenguer

Movements

Art NouveauArt Nouveau
Art DecoArt Deco
Modern ArchitectureModern Architecture

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Content compiled and written by Peter Clericuzio

Edited and published by The Art Story Contributors

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Useful Resources on Antoni Gaudí

Videos

Books

Websites

Articles

The books and articles below constitute a bibliography of the sources used in the writing of this page. These also suggest some accessible resources for further research, especially ones that can be found and purchased via the internet.

biography

Gaudí, the Life of a Visionary

By Juan Castellar-Gassol

Antonio Gaudí

By George Collins

Gaudí: His Life, His Theories, His Work

By Cèsar Martinell

Gaudí: A Biography Recomended resource

By Gijs van Hensbergen

More Interesting Books about Antoni Gaudí
Gaudí's La Sagrada Família: Genius or Folly

By Jonathan Glancey
BBC
October 2014

How a Gaudí Building Won Over a Strict Minimalist Recomended resource

By Ayesha Khan
WSJ
March 2016

Gaudí;s Basilica: Almost Finished After 132 Years Recomended resource

By Katherine Schwab
The Atlantic
November 2015

Polishing Gaudí's Unfinished jewel

NYT
November 2010

God's Architect: Antoni Gaudí's Glorious vision Recomended resource

60 Minutes CBS News special on the first mass held at the massive creation of Gaudí

Antoni Gaudí Recomended resource

Features historical images/video footage, detailing Gaudí's life and background in a brief video

Antonio Gaudí Documentary Film: "The Unfinished Vision" Recomended resource

A feature film with dramatized depictions of Gaudí in the early stages of production for the Sagrada

The Architect Antoni Gaudí. Myth and Reality (2006) Recomended resource

Feature Film Trailer

More Interesting Videos with Antoni Gaudí
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