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Caspar David Friedrich

German Painter

Movement: Romanticism

Born: September 5, 1774 - Greifswald, Swedish Pomerania (present day Germany)

Died: May 7, 1840 - Dresden, Germany

Caspar David Friedrich Timeline


"Every true work of art must express a distinct feeling."
Caspar David Friedrich
"The pure, frank sentiments we hold in our hearts are the only truthful sources of art."
Caspar David Friedrich
"A painting which does not take its inspiration from the heart is nothing more than futile juggling."
Caspar David Friedrich
"I have no intention of working against the dictates of the day, of swimming against the current, when such dictates are purely a matter of fashion. Rather I dwell in the hope that time shall annihilate its own offspring, and that it shall do so quickly. But much less am I so weak as to do obeisance to the demands of the age when they go against my convictions. I spin about me my chrysalis, and let others do the same; and I leave it to time to decide what shall come of it whether a brilliant butterfly or a maggot."
Caspar David Friedrich
"I have to surrender myself to what encircles me, I have to merge with my clouds and rocks in order to be what I am. I need solitude in order to communicate with nature."
Caspar David Friedrich
"Art must issue from man's interior, and depends on his moral and religious worth."
Caspar David Friedrich
"It may be a great honour to have a large public on one's side. But it is surely a much greater honour to have a small, select public on one's side."
Caspar David Friedrich
"The painter should not paint merely what he sees in front of him, but also what he sees within himself. If he sees nothing within, he should not paint what he sees before him."
Caspar David Friedrich
"Close your bodily eye, that you may see your picture first with the eye of the spirit. Then bring to light what you have seen in the darkness, that its effect may work back, from without to within."
Caspar David Friedrich
"I have to stay alone in order to fully contemplate and feel nature."
Caspar David Friedrich

"All authentic art is conceived at a sacred moment and nourished in a blessed hour; an inner impulse creates it, often without the artist being aware of it."

Caspar David Friedrich Signature


Seeking to capture an experience of the infinite, Caspar David Friedrich composed works that directly confronted the viewer with the awesome. Friedrich took the genre of landscape painting, traditionally considered unimportant, and infused it with deep religious and spiritual significance. Believing that the majesty of the natural world could only reflect the magnificence of God, he featured sunlight vistas and foggy expanses to convey the beautiful power of the divine.

Key Ideas

Friedrich's moody landscapes, which often thrust the viewer into the wilds of nature, created an emotional connection with the viewer rather than a more literal interaction with the scene. This integration of spiritual significance with landscape painting made him a popular success.
While conservative contemporaries challenged Friedrich's allegorical and religious landscapes, the artist maintained that his work never simply replicated a view, but rather provided opportunity to contemplate God's presence in the world. Using dramatic perspectives and misty, untamed expanses that dwarfed any figures, Friedrich encouraged the viewer to accept the awesome power of nature as evidence of a divine spirit.
Dismissing the picturesque traditions of landscape painting, Friedrich embraced the Romantic notion of the sublime. Through his sensitive depictions of mist, fog, darkness, and light, the artist conveyed the infinite power and timelessness of the natural realm; the viewer is physically reminded of his frailty and insignificance.
Friedrich's subtle color palette and emphasis on light often created an overwhelming sense of emptiness that would influence Modern Art. The visual minimalism of his paintings was so unusual that his audiences were often confused; reportedly, one group of art enthusiasts who visited his studio viewed a work upside down on the easel, believing the clouds were waves and the water was the sky. Modernists would learn from his use of subdued color and the simplicity of his compositions that still conveyed profound ideas.

Most Important Art

Caspar David Friedrich Famous Art

The Cross in the Mountains (The Tetschen Altar) (1807-08)

Commonly referred to as The Tetschen Altar, Friedrich's The Cross in the Mountains features a pine-covered mountaintop upon which stands a large crucifix. The cloud-filled sky is rendered in shades of red, pink, and violet which fade from dark to light from the top to the bottom of the canvas. Five beams of light emanate from a distant, unseen horizon.

The shaped canvas is set in an elaborate frame, designed by the artist but carved by his friend Gottlieb Christian Kuhn. The frame features a range of Christian symbols, including the heads of five baby angels, a star, grapes and vines, corn, and the eye of God.

This painting, one of his earliest, embodies many of the Romantic motifs and themes he would address throughout his career, most notably the important symbolism of the landscape itself. Indeed, although the altarpiece includes a crucifix, the emphasis is placed on the spiritual essence of nature. He described the work: "High up on the summit stands the cross, surrounded by evergreen fir trees, and evergreen ivy twines about the base of the cross. The glowing sun is sinking, and the Saviour on the cross shines in the crimson of the sunset ... The cross stands on a rock, as unshakably firm as our faith in Jesus Christ. Fir trees rise around the cross, evergreen and everlasting, like the hope of men in Him, the crucified Christ." This was a groundbreaking reinterpretation of the genre of landscape painting giving it a new level of potential significance. It reflected Friedrich's belief that the divinity of God could be best found in nature.

While Friedrich was deeply religious, aspiring to paint an image that would convey the power of God more fully than possible through words, his approach was highly controversial. When the artist opened his studio to the public in 1808, allowing them to view this work, the 19th century art critic Wilhelm von Ramdohr argued that a landscape could not function as an altarpiece. Friedrich and his supporters publically defended the painting and the resulting debate helped to build Friedrich's reputation.
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Caspar David Friedrich Artworks in Focus:


Childhood and Education

The sixth of ten children, Caspar David Friedrich was born into a strict Lutheran family. He became familiar with tragedy at an early age, losing his mother when he was seven, and two sisters to childhood illnesses. Perhaps the most impactful loss was the death of his brother, Johann, who drowned while trying to rescue the then thirteen-year-old artist when he fell through the ice.

Educated by tutors, Friedrich began taking drawing lessons in 1790 from university professor Johann Gottfried Quistorp. His early interest in art was encouraged and at the age of twenty, he enrolled at the Copenhagen Academy. In addition to studying the masters, he developed his lifelong interest in nature and landscape. Importantly he also submersed himself in spiritual and mystical poetry that would serve to influence his later work and provide the foundation for his role as one of the leaders of German Romanticism.

Early Career

In 1798, the artist finished his studies and moved to Dresden, where his work found an admiring audience. From these earliest paintings, Friedrich espoused Romantic ideals, including the spiritual potential of art and the expression of religious sentiments through the power of nature. According to the artist, "man's absolute goal is not man, but the divine, the infinite. It is towards art, not the artist, that he should strive! Art is infinite, finite all artists' knowledge and ability." For Friedrich the landscape became the primary vehicle for rendering visual manifestations of the sublime, as can be seen in The Cross in the Mountains (1807-08) and Morning Mist in the Mountains (1808).

During these years of the Napoleonic Empire, Friedrich's investment in the landscape also carried political significance as he depicted typically German sites with a sense of pride and power practically beyond worldly limit. Until the fall of Napoleon in 1815, many of Friedrich's contemporaries interpreted his paintings through this lens of political self-determination and cultural heritage, believing they held the promise of future independence from foreign rule.

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Caspar David Friedrich Biography Continues

Mature Period

Quickly gaining recognition as one of the leaders of the Romanticism movement in Germany, Friedrich's 1816 election to the Dresden Academy resulted in a steady salary. This allowed for his 1818 marriage, at the age of forty-four, to Caroline Bommer with whom he would have three children; two daughters and a son. Despite his reputation as a solitary figure who had once stated, "in order not to hate people, I must avoid their company," the marriage had an immediate impact on his career. He began depicting his wife in some of his paintings, transforming his well-established motif of a lone figure immersed in the landscape to occasionally feature a couple.

Friedrich gained the attention and patronage of important international figures. The recognition he received when The Monk by the Sea (1808-10) and Abbey in an Oak Forest (1809-10) were exhibited at the Berlin Academy brought him into the path of Prince Friedrich Wilhelm Ludwig of Prussia who bought the two paintings. The ruling family would continue to support the artist until his liberal political views caused him to fall out of favor. His art was also well received in Russia as Tsar Nicholas I purchased some of his works for his court. In 1830, Prince Alexander of Russia commissioned the artist to make a series of transparent pictures (now lost) that were to be exhibited lit from behind in a darkened room in combination with music.

Friedrich's Romantic sensibilities found a kindred spirit in the famous German poet Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, whose writings epitomize the literary iteration of the movement (Goethe was actually much older than Friedrich, and already a star by the time they met). Yet Goethe's systematic work with color theory suggests a more objective and methodological approach to the visual arts, which underpinned their 1816 falling-out. Goethe suggested that Friedrich should paint clouds as a way of documenting their various types; Friedrich disagreed, feeling such studies were not in keeping with the Romantic ideals of the divinity of nature and would be merely a scientific exercise.

Later Period

Caspar David Friedrich painted by Caroline Bardua (1840)
Caspar David Friedrich painted by Caroline Bardua (1840)

The losses experienced by Friedrich in his early years were echoed once again in later life. The 1820 murder of his friend and fellow artist Gerhard von Kügelgen sparked a severe depression, during which he turned to teaching as a means of solace and comfort. During this decade, his career suffered from a growing interest in Realism and Naturalism in German art; Friedrich's loyalty to Romantic landscapes fell out of fashion. This contributed to him being denied the position of landscape painting chair at the Dresden Academy in 1824. Shortly after he fell ill, lacking the strength to paint in oil until 1826.

By 1830, the already solitary figure had disengaged further from public life. He grew increasingly melancholy and suspicious of friends and his wife whom he wrongly believed was engaging in infidelity. Choosing to stay in the privacy of his studio and entertaining only his closest friends and family, some scholars have interpreted his later works as gloomy meditations on death and the passing of time. Still these last years of his life were productive, seeing the creation of important works such as The Stages of Life (1835).

On June 26, 1835 Friedrich suffered a stroke that left him partially paralyzed and again limited his artistic output to drawings. Before his death in May of 1840, he suffered a second stroke and was reduced to poverty.


Caspar David Friedrich painted by Carl Johann Baehr (1836)
Caspar David Friedrich painted by Carl Johann Baehr (1836)

As part of a second wave of German Romantics, Friedrich expanded beyond the ideas of symbolism embraced by the Nazarenes to create a new, sparse language of evocation rather than illustration. His dedication to landscape painting as an alternative to traditional religious or history painting, encouraged his contemporaries to reconsider the genre.

This elevation of the landscape format would have national and international impact. Many American artists studied in Dresden, Germany during the 19th century and learned from Friedrich's example. In particular, the artists of the Hudson River School similarly created awe-inspiring landscapes laced with spiritual and political significance.

Friedrich's suggestive use of symbols to imply deeper meanings was also an important example to the 19th-century Symbolists and the 20th-century Surrealists, who also embraced his creation of poetic moods. Furthermore, his minimalism and broad fields of color were foundational to Abstract Expressionism and Color Field Painting. This was confirmed in a 1961 article where art critic Robert Rosenblum directly established a link between the then developing Color Field Painting movement in America to Friedrich's The Monk by the Sea (1808-10).

In Germany, Friedrich was considered the quintessential struggling, and triumphant creative spirit; to the point where Nietzsche is said to have had him in mind as the archetypal human that infused his philosophical theories of a passionate, productive existance. More infamously, Hitler used the artist's creations as proof of German superiority to other races.

In more recent years, the rehabilitation of Friedrich's work from its abuse by Nazi propagandists has influenced new generations of modern German artists such as Anselm Kiefer and Gerhard Richter. He provides an example of strong Germanic heritage while also showing quiet evocations of absence and loss, important themes in postwar European painting.

Influences and Connections

Influences on artist

Artists, Friends, Movements

Influenced by artist

Artists, Friends, Movements

Caspar David Friedrich
Interactive chart with Caspar David Friedrich's main influences, and the people and ideas that the artist influenced in turn.
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View Influences Chart


Carl Gustav Carus
Gerhard von Kügelgen
Jens Juel
Johann Gottfried Quistorp
Philipp Otto Runge


Johann Wolfgang von GoetheJohann Wolfgang von Goethe
Ernest Chesneau
Friedrich Gottlieb Klopstock
Georg Reimer


Caspar David Friedrich
Caspar David Friedrich
Years Worked: 1798 - 1840


Carl Gustav Carus
Fredric Edwin Church
Gustave CourbetGustave Courbet
Anselm KieferAnselm Kiefer
Gerhard von Kügelgen


Johann Wolfgang von GoetheJohann Wolfgang von Goethe
Clemens Brentano
Friedrich Gottlieb Klopstock
Theodor Körner
Georg Reimer


Abstract ExpressionismAbstract Expressionism
Color Field PaintingColor Field Painting
German RomanticismGerman Romanticism
The Hudson River SchoolThe Hudson River School

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Content compiled and written by The Art Story Contributors

Edited and revised, with Synopsis and Key Ideas added by Sarah Archino

" Artist Overview and Analysis". [Internet]. . TheArtStory.org
Content compiled and written by The Art Story Contributors
Edited and revised, with Synopsis and Key Ideas added by Sarah Archino
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Useful Resources on Caspar David Friedrich






The books and articles below constitute a bibliography of the sources used in the writing of this page. These also suggest some accessible resources for further research, especially ones that can be found and purchased via the internet.


Caspar David Friedrich and the Subject of Landscape: Second Edition Recomended resource

By Joseph Leo Koerner

Friedrich Recomended resource

By Norbert Wolf

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Caspar David Friedrich Recomended resource

By Werner Hofmann and Mary Whittall

Caspar David Friedrich and Romantic Painting

By Charles Sala

More Interesting Books about Caspar David Friedrich
Inspired Lunacy: A closer view of Caspar David Friedrich Recomended resource

By Peter Schjeldahl
The New Yorker
October 1, 2001

The whispering Zeitgeist: Caspar David Friedrich Recomended resource

Tate Etc., issue 14
Autumn 2008

Worlds of Romanticism | Caspar David Friedrich Recomended resource

urator Christof Metzger of the Albertina Museum, in Vienna, Austria, discusses Caspar David Friedrich's painting The Stages of Life (1835)

Caspar David Friedrich

Set to classical music, this video provides a look at numerous key works by the artist Caspar David Friedrich

Caspar David Friedrich - Famous Painters Bios - Wiki Videos by Kinedio

This brief video clip provides a quick overview of the work and artistic style of Caspar David Friedrich

in pop culture

Wanderer above the Sea of Clouds

This contemporary work of anime was inspired by Caspar David Friedrich's Wanderer above a Sea of Fog (1818). Rather than having the figure looking out at the sea as in the painting, here the young man ("the wanderer") stands above the clouds looking out at the northern lights

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