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Artists Lyonel Feininger

Lyonel Feininger

German-American Painter, Printmaker, Cartoonist, Photographer

Movements: Bauhaus, Cubism, Der Blaue Reiter, Modern Photography

Born: July 17, 1871 - New York City, NY

Died: January 13, 1956 - New York City, NY

Quotes

"There is no foreground or background, only a continuity of interlacing relationships."
Lyonel Feininger
"The most beautiful landscape cannot hold my fascinated attention as much as nature by the seaside and all that is connected with water."
Lyonel Feininger
"Where I used to strive for movement and restlessness I now attempt to sense and express the complete total calm of objects and the surrounding air."
Lyonel Feininger
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"Each individual work serves as an expression of our most personal state of mind at that particular moment and of the inescapable, imperative need for release by means of an appropriate act of creation: in the rhythm, form, color, and mood of a picture."

Synopsis

A leader of the Cubo-Expressionist movement and a founding member of the experimental Bauhaus school, Lyonel Feininger embraced abstraction as a way of conveying new vision and utopian aspirations. Although his first success was as the cartoonist of popular newspaper comics, such as "Kin-der-Kids" and "Wee Willie Winkie's World" for the Chicago Sunday Tribune, when he decided to pursue a career in fine art he was enthusiastically embraced by several German Expressionist groups, including Die Brucke and Der Blaue Reiter. Later, he was the first faculty member to be recruited by Walter Gropius for the new Bauhaus school where he led the printmaking workshop. When his work was included in the 1937 Degenerate Art Show, marking him as a target for artistic censorship and surveillance, Feininger returned to America with his family where he continued to produce art and teach.

Key Ideas

Feininger was one of only two American artists to actively participate in the development of Expressionism within the German avant-garde (the other was Marsden Hartley). His connections to artistic centers throughout Europe and America made him an important conduit for transatlantic exchanges of ideas. His paintings combined the faceting and multiple perspectives of Cubism with Expressionistic color and brushwork to create an influential hybrid of Cubo-Expressionism.
The first instructor hired at the Bauhaus, Feininger remained a constant presence at the school until it was shuttered by the Nazis in 1933. His emphasis on building a community of artists and his belief in the revolutionary possibilities of art making provided an important model for other instructors and their students (including his own children). When he left Germany in 1937, he brought to America the innovative pedagogy of the Bauhaus, and (along with other Bauhaus instructors who relocated to the US) he helped revolutionize the teaching of art in the country to include more experimentation and less reliance on the study of traditional or canonical art.

Most Important Art

Green Bridge (1909)
With this painting, Feininger made a notable debut at the 1911 Salon des Indépendants in Paris, revealing a combination of his cartooning experience and avant-garde credentials. While this work depicts the "types" of people he had often caricatured, they are placed into a distorted architectural space that suggests Cubist faceting and Fauvist color. He combines these expressive elements to create an atmosphere of mysterious space and urban isolation. The large green bridge looms over a street lined with buildings painted in contrasting red, creating a sense of unease and tension. The figures on the street below, a somber group that includes workers, prostitutes, children, and a sailor, appear unaware that they are being watched from the bridge by a group of top-hatted men.

The work's non-descriptive use of color led the Salon's hanging committee to include Feininger's work in a room of Fauve paintings. According to one, admittedly apocryphal, story told by Robert Delaunay, when Matisse arrived to hang his work in the same room, he examined Feininger's entry for some time before leaving to "work over his painting before he would let it stand comparison." Whether this truly happened, Feininger's painting was admired in a number of contemporary reviews and he painted a second version in 1916, now in the collection of the North Carolina Museum of Art.
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Lyonel Feininger Artworks in Focus:
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Lyonel Feininger: Of Interest

Feininger at work (1951). Photo by son, Andreas FeiningerLyonel Feininger's Self-portrait (1915)Feininger was fascinated by shop windows and made this whimsical and bizzare photograph in the early 1930s, just as the Nazis were coming to power.Lyonel Feininger (1922). Photo by Hugo Erfurth

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Content compiled and written by Sarah Archino

Edited and published by The Art Story Contributors

" Artist Overview and Analysis". [Internet]. . TheArtStory.org
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Edited and published by The Art Story Contributors
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Die Brücke
Die Brücke
Die Brücke
Die Brücke (The Bridge) was a group of German Expressionist artists that banded together in Dresden in 1905. The group, which includes artists such as Erich Heckel, Ernst Ludwig Kirchner, and Emil Nolde, had a major impact on the evolution of modern art in the twentieth century and the creation of Expressionism. Die Bruke artists' used bold colors to depicts gritty scene of city life.
TheArtStory: Die Brücke
Der Blaue Reiter
Der Blaue Reiter
Der Blaue Reiter
Der Blaue Reiter (The Blue Rider) was a group of Expressionist painters in Munich, Germany consisting principally of Wassily Kandinsky, Alexej von Jawlensky,Germans Auguste Macke, and Franz Marc. Key interests among them were the aesthetics of primitivism and spiritualism, as well as growing trends in Fauvism and Cubism, which led Kandinsky, chief among the Expressionist artists, to experiment more with abstract art.
TheArtStory: Der Blaue Reiter
Walter Gropius
Walter Gropius
Walter Gropius
The German architect Walter Gropius founded the Bauhaus school of art and design in Weimar Germany. Along with Ludwig Mies van der Rohe and Le Corbusier, he is regarded as one of the pioneers of modern architecture.
Walter Gropius
Bauhaus
Bauhaus
Bauhaus
Bauhaus is a style associated with the Bauhaus school, an extremely influential art and design school in Weimar Germany that emphasized functionality and efficiency of design. Its famous faculty - including Joseph Albers and Ludwig Mies van der Rohe - generally rejected distinctions between the fine and applied arts, and encouraged major advances in industrial design.
TheArtStory: Bauhaus
Expressionism
Expressionism
Expressionism
Expressionism is a broad term for a host of movements in early twentieth-century Germany and beyond, from Die Brücke (1905) and Der Blaue Reiter (1911) to the early Neue Sachlichkeit painters in the 1920s and '30s. Many Expressionists used vivid colors and abstracted forms to create spiritually or psychologically intense works, while others focused on depictions of war, alienation, and the modern city.
TheArtStory: Expressionism
Marsden Hartley
Marsden Hartley
Marsden Hartley
Marsden Hartley was an American painter and poet. After studying at the Art Students League of New York, Hartley became a member of Alfred Stieglitz's 291 Gallery Group, and was an important Modernist in the early-twentieth-century years of New York.
Marsden Hartley
Cubism
Cubism
Cubism
Cubism was developed by Pablo Picasso and Georges Braque between 1907-1911, and it continued to be highly influential long after its decline. This classic phase has two stages: 'Analytic', in which forms seem to be 'analyzed' and fragmented; and 'Synthetic', in which pre-existing materials such as newspaper and wood veneer are collaged to the surface of the canvas.
TheArtStory: Cubism
Modern Photography
Modern Photography
Modern Photography
Modern photography refers to a range of different approaches. Some, associated with 'Straight Photography,' celebrate clarity and documentary truthfulness. Others, associated with 'New Vision' photography, are often characterized by unusual perspectives, novel print techniques, and abstraction.
Modern Photography
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