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Artists Marcel Duchamp
Marcel Duchamp Photo

Marcel Duchamp

French Painter and Sculptor

Movements: Cubism, Dada, Surrealism, Conceptual Art

Born: July 28, 1887 - Normandy, France

Died: October 2, 1968 - Neuilly-sur-Seine, France

Marcel Duchamp Timeline

Quotes

"I don't believe in art. I believe in artist."
Marcel Duchamp
"To all appearances, the artist acts like a mediumistic being who, from the labyrinth beyond time and space, seeks his way out to a clearing."
The Creative Act (1957)
"I have forced myself to contradict myself in order to avoid conforming to my own taste."
Marcel Duchamp
"The individual, man as a man, man as a brain, if you like, interests me more than what he makes, because I've noticed that most artists only repeat themselves."
Marcel Duchamp
"[Art] is paradoxical. It is almost schizophrenic. On one side I worked from a very intellectual form of activity, and on the other de-deifying everything by more materialistic thoughts."
Marcel Duchamp
"When I discovered ready-mades I thought to discourage aesthetics. In Neo-Dada they have taken my ready-mades and found aesthetic beauty in them. I threw the bottle-rack and the urinal into their faces as a challenge and now they admire them for their aesthetic beauty."
1962 Letter to Hans Richter
"The readymade is the consequence of the refusal which made me say: There are so many people who make pictures with their hands, that one should end up not using the hand."
Marcel Duchamp
"I am still a victim of chess. It has all the beauty of art, and much more. It cannot be commercialized. Chess is much purer than art in its social position."
Marcel Duchamp

"You cannot define electricity. The same can be said of art. It is a kind of inner current in a human being, or something which needs no definition."

Marcel Duchamp Signature

Synopsis

Few artists can boast having changed the course of art history in the way that Marcel Duchamp did. By challenging the very notion of what is art, his first "readymades" sent shock waves across the art world that can still be felt today. Duchamp's ongoing preoccupation with the mechanisms of desire and human sexuality as well as his fondness for wordplay aligns his work with that of Surrealists, although he steadfastly refused to be affiliated with any specific artistic movement per se. In his insistence that art should be driven by ideas above all, Duchamp is generally considered to be the father of Conceptual art. His refusal to follow a conventional artistic path, matched only by a horror of repetition which accounts for the relatively small number of works Duchamp produced in the span of his short career, ultimately led to his withdrawal from the art world. In later years, Duchamp famously spent his time playing chess, even as he labored away in secret at his last enigmatic masterpiece, which was only unveiled after his death.

Key Ideas

Coined by Duchamp, the term "readymade" came to designate mass-produced everyday objects taken out of their usual context and promoted to the status of artworks by the mere choice of the artist. A performative act as much as a stylistic category, the readymade had far-reaching implications for what can legitimately be considered an object of art.
Duchamp rejected purely visual or what he dubbed "retinal pleasure," deeming it to be facile, in favor of more intellectual, concept-driven approaches to art-making and, for that matter, viewing. He remained committed, however, to the study of perspective and optics which underpins his experiments with kinetic devices, reflecting an ongoing concern with the representation of motion and machines common to Futurist and Surrealist artists at the time.
A taste for jokes, tongue-in-cheek wit and subversive humor, rife with sexual innuendoes, characterizes Duchamp's work and makes for much of its enjoyment. He fashioned puns out of everyday expressions which he conveyed through visual means. The linguistic dimension of his work in particular paved the way for Conceptual art.

Most Important Art

Marcel Duchamp Famous Art

Fountain (1917)

The most notorious of the readymades, Fountain was submitted to the 1917 Society of Independent Artists under the pseudonym R. Mutt. The initial R stood for Richard, French slang for "moneybags" whereas Mutt referred to JL Mott Ironworks, the New York-based company, which manufactured the porcelain urinal. After the work had been rejected by the Society on the grounds that it was immoral, critics who championed it disputed this claim, arguing that an object was invested with new significance when selected by an artist for display. Testing the limits of what constitutes a work of art, Fountain staked new grounds. What started off as an elaborate prank designed to poke fun at American avant-garde art, proved to be one of most influential artworks of the 20th century.
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Marcel Duchamp Artworks in Focus:

Biography

Childhood

Marcel Duchamp Biography

Marcel Duchamp was raised in Normandy, in a family of artists. His father was mayor of Blainville and his mother raised their seven children and painted landscapes depicting the French countryside. Family time was spent playing chess, reading, painting, and playing music. One of Marcel's earliest artworks, Landscape at Blainville (1902), painted at age fifteen, reflected his family's love of Claude Monet. Marcel was close to his two older brothers, and in 1904, after both had left home to become artists, he joined them in Paris to study painting at Académie Julian. His brother, Jacques Villon, supported him during his studies, and Marcel earned some income by working as a cartoonist. Duchamp's early drawings evince his ongoing interest in visual and verbal puns.

Early Training

Marcel Duchamp Photo

Paris in the early 1900s was the ideal place for Duchamp to become acquainted with modern trends in painting. Duchamp studied Fauvism, Cubism, and Impressionism, and was captivated by new approaches to color and structure. He related above all to the Cubist notion of reordering reality, rather than simply representing it. His early paintings, such as Nude Descending A Staircase (1912), illustrate Duchamp's interest in machinery and its connection to the body's movement through space, implicit in early Modernism. However, Duchamp was most attracted to avant-garde notions of the artist as an anti-academic, and felt an affinity in this respect with one of his early heroes, the Symbolist painter and graphic artist, Odilon Redon. Early in his career, Duchamp developed a taste for the mysterious allure of Symbolist subject matter, such as the woman as elusive femme fatale. This deep-seated interest in the themes and exploration of sexual identity and desire would lead Duchamp toward Dadaism and Surrealism.

Mature Period

Marcel Duchamp Image

In 1911, the twenty-five-year-old Marcel Duchamp met Francis Picabia, and the following year attended a theater adaptation of Raymond Roussel's Impressions d'Afrique with Picabia and Guillaume Apollinaire. This experience, and Roussel's inventive plots and puns in particular, made a deep impression on Duchamp. He noted that, for the first time, he "felt that as a painter it was much better to be influenced by a writer than by another painter." This interest in cross-genre pollination would influence the artist to develop an eclectic approach to art making.

In 1915, Duchamp immigrated to New York and conceived and manufactured several readymades. By signing them, Duchamp laid claim to found objects, such as a snow shovel, a urinal, or a bicycle wheel. These objects, tied symbolically to themes of desire, eroticism and childhood memory, were designed to show the absurdity of canonizing avant-garde art practice.

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Marcel Duchamp Biography Continues

He also devoted seven years - 1915 to 1923 - to planning and executing one of his two major works, The Bride Stripped Bare by Her Bachelors, Even, or The Large Glass. This installation of machinery wedged between glass panels was Duchamp's first "aesthetic manifesto," marking his rejection of outmoded painterly obsessions with pleasing the eye (in a theory he called the "Retinal Shudder"). The Bride Stripped Bare by Her Bachelors, Even, or The Large Glass thematically investigated eroticism and desire, which was typical of Duchamp's oeuvre.

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Later Years

Marcel Duchamp Image

As Surrealism became popular in France, Duchamp traveled between New York and Paris, participating in printed textual projects, sculptural installations, and collaborations in all mediums with the Surrealists. Yet Duchamp always stayed away from groups - that invariably came with their group politics. He was never truly part of the Surrealist group. Moreover, he was not really part of Dada either. According to research by curator and writer Catherine Craft, Duchamp's readymades actually preceded the founding of the Dada movement in Zurich. As they fit the overall mindset of the movement, much later, when Dada was superceded by Surrealism, Duchamp was able to align himself with Dada, and thereby include his art in art history without fully immersing himself in the movement.

As of 1920, Duchamp adopted an alternate female persona, Rrose Selavy, to fully explore ideas of sexual identity. He continued to make readymades and exhibited his famous Bottle Rack series - an edition of eight bottle racks signed by Duchamp - in 1936. Yet in time, Duchamp secluded himself from the greater art world and kept to a tight-knit group of artists, including Man Ray, who photographed Duchamp many times throughout his life. For over twenty years Duchamp labored in complete secrecy at his second masterwork, Etant donnes, an elaborate, sexualized diorama (the work is currently permanently installed at the Philadelphia Museum of Art). He shunned the public eye, preferring instead to play chess with select guests until his death in 1968.


Legacy

Marcel Duchamp Portrait

After he withdrew from the art world, Duchamp remained a passive, if influential, presence in New York avant-garde circles until he was rediscovered in the 1950s by Robert Rauschenberg and Jasper Johns. Interestingly, at around this time Duchamp welcomed an association with Dadaism - willing to be associated with a group many years after the group's demise, without ever having to confirm to the politics and issues that usually rule group dynamics. Duchamp virtually wrote himself into the movement, and thereby, art history.

Duchamp's insistence that art should be an expression of the mind rather than the eye or the hand spoke to Minimalists and Conceptual artists alike. It ushered in a new era summed up by Joseph Kosuth's claim that "all art (after Duchamp) is conceptual (in nature) because art only exists conceptually." The seminal concept of the mass-produced readymade was eagerly seized upon not only by Andy Warhol and other Pop artists who claimed Duchamp as their founding father but also, owing to its performative aspects, by Fluxus, Arte Povera and Performance artists.

Duchamp's radical critique of art institutions made him a cult figure for generations of artists who, like him, refused to go down the path of a conventional, commercial artistic career. Though his work was admired for its wide-ranging use of artistic materials and mediums, it is the theoretical thrust of Duchamp's eclectic but relatively limited output that accounts for his growing impact on successive waves of twentieth-century avant-garde movements and individual artists who openly acknowledged his influence.

Influences and Connections

Influences on artist

Artists, Friends, Movements

Influenced by artist

Artists, Friends, Movements

Marcel Duchamp
Interactive chart with Marcel Duchamp's main influences, and the people and ideas that the artist influenced in turn.
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View Influences Chart

Artists

Alfred JarryAlfred Jarry
Édouard ManetÉdouard Manet
Henri MatisseHenri Matisse
Pablo PicassoPablo Picasso
Georges BraqueGeorges Braque

Friends

André BretonAndré Breton
Max ErnstMax Ernst
Man RayMan Ray
Guillaume ApollinaireGuillaume Apollinaire
Francis PicabiaFrancis Picabia

Movements

ImpressionismImpressionism
FauvismFauvism
CubismCubism
FuturismFuturism
SymbolismSymbolism
Marcel Duchamp
Marcel Duchamp
Years Worked: 1902 - 1968

Artists

Andy WarholAndy Warhol
Jasper JohnsJasper Johns
Robert RauschenbergRobert Rauschenberg
Jeff KoonsJeff Koons
Damien HirstDamien Hirst

Friends

André BretonAndré Breton
Peggy GuggenheimPeggy Guggenheim
John CageJohn Cage
Clement GreenbergClement Greenberg

Movements

DadaDada
SurrealismSurrealism
Pop ArtPop Art
Installation ArtInstallation Art
Conceptual ArtConceptual Art

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Useful Resources on Marcel Duchamp

Special Features

Videos

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Websites

Articles

artist features

Defining Modern Art

Take a look at the big picture of modern art, and Duchamp's role in it.

The books and articles below constitute a bibliography of the sources used in the writing of this page. These also suggest some accessible resources for further research, especially ones that can be found and purchased via the internet.

biography

Dialogues With Marcel Duchamp Recomended resource

By Pierre Cabanne

The Duchamp Effect

By Martha Buskirk, Mignon Nixon

Marcel Duchamp: Works, Writings, Inteviews

By Gloria Moure, Marcel Duchamp

Duchamp: A Biography Recomended resource

By Calvin Tomkins

More Interesting Books about Marcel Duchamp
Art Science Research Laboratory Recomended resource

Organization with 3 Duchamp-related initiatives including the Marcel Duchamp World Community and the Tout-Fait The Marcel Duchamp Studies Online Journal

MarcelDuchamp.org

Marcel Duchamp's Work

At The Centre Pompidou

Making Sense of Marcel Duchamp

Anything Goes

By Matthew Collings
Time Magazine
February 27, 2008

Precision Optics/Optical Illusions

By Michael Betancourt
Tout-Fait
April, 2003

Face Value Recomended resource

By Blane Gopnik
Washington Post
April 7, 2009

The Shock of the New: Marcel Duchamp Recomended resource

By historian Robert Hughes

Marcel Duchamp and Hollow Laughter (This Is Modern Art series) Recomended resource

Part of 6 episodes on Modern Art by critic Matthew Collings

Marcel Duchamp, Anemic Cinema

Marcel Duchamp interviewed in 1966

More Interesting Videos with Marcel Duchamp
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