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Artists Jim Dine

Jim Dine

American Painter, Printmaker, Sculptor, Poet, Conceptual and Performance Artist

Movements: Pop Art, Happenings, Conceptual Art, Performance Art

Born: June 16, 1935 - Cincinnati, Ohio

Quotes

"I was always an artist. I was born an artist. I couldn't do anything else."
Jim Dine
"I was an artist before I had language, from two or three years of age. That's all I wanted to be, that's all I could do."
Jim Dine
"My work is about loss."
Jim Dine
"I'm not interested in so-called abstraction, conceptual art, non-objective painting, minimalism; all fine for every other asshole in the world, but I'm not interested in it."
Jim Dine
"My attitude towards drawing is not necessarily about drawing. It's about making the best kind of image I can make, it's about talking as clearly as I can."
Jim Dine
"The figure is still the only thing I have faith in in terms of how much emotion it's charged with and how much subject matter is there."
Jim Dine
"Western art is built on the biographical passion of one artist for another."
Jim Dine
"I have come to terms with a lot of things, because, when all's said and done, there's really very little one can do about a lot of things. You just accept them. The point is you just have to keep on working and you just have to keep on living."
Jim Dine
"I've never had an easy relationship with critics. I hold a lot of homicide in my heart. If this was another time, I'd be packing a piece."
Jim Dine

"I would have been quite pleased to have been a pop artist; I was very involved with pop art and with those guys. But let's face it, I wasn't one. I used some popular imagery, objects more than anything else. But I wasn't glorifying consumerism, nothing like that."

Synopsis

Jim Dine has created a vocabulary out of subjects that have a child-like appeal, such as tools, birds, and hearts. These personally nostalgic symbols are also commonplace and universal, creating work that is both autobiographical and open to interpretation. Dine was also instrumental in the first "Happenings," a progenitor of Performance art. These Happenings challenged the seriousness and elitism of Abstract Expressionism, de-emphasizing the art object in favor of a performative, interactive, process. Over his career, Dine has both questioned the status of the artwork and continued a tradition of making work full of symbolism and allegory.

Key Ideas

Dine is inspired by the power of simple images to be both familiar and symbolic. His repetitions of tools, bathrobes, or hearts are easily understood by the viewer, while also suggesting deeper layers of meaning. He often works with subjects and images from his childhood, giving his work both a sense of innocence and shared nostalgia.
Although his strong graphic style, bright colors, and straightforward, popular imagery have often been connected to Pop art, Dine resisted this connection. He saw his work as an extension of Robert Rauschenberg's or Jasper Johns' Neo-Dada art, questioning the power of iconic symbols, rather than a more simplistic celebration of them.
Dine's involvement in the earliest "Happenings" extended his influence beyond traditional art media. The Happenings were an important rejection of the solemnity of Abstract Expressionism and a precedent for Performance art. Furthermore, his treatment of the art object as superfluous in these performances contributed to the conceptualism of art and the decentralization of the object, which has influenced much of postmodern art.
As Conceptual art was emerging, Dine's use of iconic forms and repeated symbols attempted to understand how images create meaning. By singling out simple shapes and objects, and depicting them over and over, Dine suggests that they are important subjects for artistic study. Building on Marcel Duchamp's readymade sculptures, these ordinary objects take on a new, important, meaning solely because they were chosen by the artist and repeatedly studied. Isolating them and framing them in a gallery or museum space, Dine declares them worthy subjects to be celebrated in art, transforming them into something significant. Dine's work in this conceptual vein transforms Duchamp's skeptical gesture into part of a sincere investigation on how the artistic process elevates the ordinary.

Most Important Art

The Smiling Workman (1959)
Dine first became known in the art world as a progenitor of "Happenings," interactive performance pieces that grew out of the experimental art scene in New York City during the late 1950s. In The Smiling Workman, the 1959 Happening for which he is most known, Dine wore painters' clothing covered with red, blue, and gold paint, while his face was painted gold and red with a clown's mouth. During the 30-second work, he painted the words "I love what I'm doing, HELP" onto a canvas and drank what looked like paint from a paint can (it was actually tomato juice) before pouring the rest of it over his head. At the end he jumped through the canvas he had just painted. By destroying his own work, Dine firmly centered the artistic identity of this piece as the performance, not the product. This would be an important shift and set a precedent for performance artists to follow.

What may seem like an absurd series of actions was actually a reaction to the solemnity of Abstract Expressionism and the uptown art establishment. Dine wanted to inject the excitement of live performance into art and increase audience involvement. Drawing on theatrical principles more than on his artistic predecessors, Dine also hoped to open the art world to a new form of artistic creation, where the viewer was an active participant (even if he was activated by his confusion or annoyance). Dine described the piece as "painters' theater," and later claimed, "It was a very exciting thing to be in. And, of course, show business is more exciting than art. People laugh, people cry, they clap." In breaking down the boundaries between art, theater, and participation, Dine created a new type of art performance that highlighted the body and its movement as an artistic medium.
Performance
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Biography

Childhood

Jim Dine was born in Cincinnati, Ohio. His parents were second-generation immigrants from Eastern Europe and practicing Jews, an identity which influenced his artistic career. He later claimed he was "raised in a family of ironmongers and the tools were always around me." His family owned a hardware store, where he gained a deep interest in the power of ordinary objects. He was particularly fascinated by the "metaphorical" or "mythic" quality of the tools of iron-working; they would inspire his works of the early 1960s, where he attached tools to canvases creating combinations of found object and pictorial image.

Dine's mother died when he was 12 years old, and as a result, as he says, "I took care of myself." He attended Walnut Hills High School before going to the University of Cincinnati. Being dyslexic, he found reading difficult, but found poetry easier than novels. He has consequently been a lover of poetry, and a poet himself, ever since.

Early Training and work

Jim Dine Biography

From 1953, Dine attended evening classes at the Art Academy of Cincinnati, where he studied with Paul Chidlaw, a well-known Abstract Expressionist painter. This was a style Dine would eventually reject, although his painterly training would impact his later work. He attended Ohio University, graduating with a BFA in 1957. In the same year, he married Nancy Minto, and in 1958 the couple moved to New York.

It was in New York that Dine became involved with other important artists, including Claes Oldenburg, Allan Kaprow, and John Cage. Together, they staged "Happenings," chaotic performances that took place around the city (but mostly downtown, away from the areas traditionally associated with art museums and galleries). One of the aims of the "Happening" was to break from the ubiquitous Abstract Expressionist style, as championed by the art world. Dine later stated, "It's said we were the inheritors of Pollock's tradition. That's crap. Oldenburg and I came out of the theater that we knew; we were literate young men. We came out of Brecht, Artaud. We looked to Genet."

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Jim Dine Biography Continues

Dine met Oldenburg soon after arriving in New York, and the pair became good friends. Dine recalls that they were introduced by a friend who had an art space in the Judson Memorial Church in Greenwich Village: "Claes and I got together, drank a lot of beer, and talked and talked and talked. We talked about what we could do." These conversations led to the founding of Judson Gallery, which Dine and several friends opened in a Greenwich Village basement in 1959. The short-lived gallery showed important experimental work as an antidote to the supremacy of abstract expressionism on the Upper East Side before closing in 1961.

Mature Period

Jim Dine Photo

In 1962, Walter Hopps asked Dine to provide work for his ground-breaking show, "New Paintings of Common Objects." Generally credited with being the first exhibition of Pop art in the United States, Dine's paintings were shown alongside works by Roy Lichtenstein, Andy Warhol and Ed Ruscha. This exhibition secured Dine's reputation and his place in a new art movement, however, Dine never saw himself as a Pop artist. Instead, he thought of himself as continuing the legacy of artists such as Jasper Johns and Robert Rauschenberg. He could be dismissive of Warhol, saying "I hadn't got anything to say to Warhol. He came to my studio early on and bought work, and I was aware of him as a very successful graphic designer."

By the mid-1960s, Dine was well-known on an international scale. In 1966, Robert Fraser staged an exhibition of Dine's work at his gallery in London, but police raided the exhibition and twenty of Dine's works were seized and confiscated; Fraser was prosecuted under the Obscene Publications Act. The court eventually determined that Dine's drawings weren't "obscene" but they were "indecent," labeling them "crudely offensive and disgusting." Fraser was heavily fined for exhibiting them. The next year, Dine made the decision to move to London with his wife and three young sons, where Fraser continued to represent him and he befriended artists such as R.B. Kitaj. Although Dine only lived in London for four years, his love of the city endured throughout his life, and, in 2015, he gifted 234 prints to the British Museum.

Returning to America in 1971, Dine chose to focus on his drawing, making an effort to hone his technique and achieve a quieter, more nuanced style. A talented draftsman, he completed many self-portraits and portraits of his wife Nancy. During these years, he also developed a series of visual motifs which would crop up again and again in his works, including hearts, bath robes, and painters' palettes.

In the 1980s Dine also began to experiment with sculpture as a medium. In particular, he created a series of large-scale heart shaped sculptures for a range of different outdoor locations. Many of his sculptures made use of saws and blow-torches to create his works in an almost heavy-handed style reminiscent of the techniques of workmen, connecting these three-dimensional works to his lifelong fascination with workers and their tools.

Current Practice

Jim Dine Portrait

In contrast to his earlier conceptual and Pop-style painting, much of Dine's latest production has been photographic. Dine contends that photography held a power he hadn't found in other media, saying "It's been very illuminating to me what one could say with photography that I haven't wanted to say with painting and sculpture." Dine has also developed new autobiographical iconography, pulling from his childhood to explore the character Pinocchio and a lifelong fascination with birds.

In 2005, Dine married Diana Michener, who had been his partner since the early 1990s. The couple lives in Walla Walla, in the foothills of the Blue Mountains in Washington, where Dine maintains several studios. They also have a home in the West Village in New York, however, Dine continues to travel extensively, often creating temporary studios in other cities when he's working on particular projects or preparing for exhibitions.


Legacy

Jim Dine's legacy extends to multiple styles and artistic media. His main influence can be found in the emergence of performance art, which sprung up following the Happenings in New York. These influenced movements such as Fluxus and Neo-Dada, with artists such as Joseph Beuys and Yoko Ono building on the avant-garde ideas expressed in these early New York Happenings.

Although he rejected the Pop art label, his colorful paintings in this style had a significant influence on a younger generation, along with the work of artists such as Andy Warhol, Roy Lichtenstein and Ed Ruscha. Artists working in the Neo-Pop movement, such as Jeff Koons, borrowed Dine's tropes of elevating commonplace objects to the status of fine art; Koons' New Hoover Convertibles (1980) are an example of this.

Influences and Connections

Influences on artist

Artists, Friends, Movements

Influenced by artist

Artists, Friends, Movements

Jim Dine
Interactive chart with Jim Dine's main influences, and the people and ideas that the artist influenced in turn.
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Artists

Jasper Johns
Robert Rauschenberg
Marcel Duchamp

Friends

Walter Hopps
Claes Oldenburg
John Cage
Tom Wesselmann

Movements

Surrealism
Dada
Neo-Dada
Jim Dine
Jim Dine
Years Worked: 1959 - 2000s

Artists

Tom Wesselmann
Paul McCarthy
Yoko Ono
Joseph Beuys
Jeff Koons

Friends

Allan Kaprow
R. B. Kitaj

Movements

Pop Art
Conceptual Art
Performance Art

Content compiled and written by Anna Souter

Edited and revised by Sarah Archino

" Artist Overview and Analysis". [Internet]. . TheArtStory.org
Content compiled and written by Anna Souter
Edited and revised by Sarah Archino
Available from:
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Useful Resources on Jim Dine

Books
Websites
Articles
Videos
The books and articles below constitute a bibliography of the sources used in the writing this page. These also suggest some accessible resources for further research, especially ones that can be found and purchased via the internet.
biography
Jim Dine: New Paintings and Sculpture

by Martin Freidman

Jim Dine (Modern Masters Series)

by Jean Feinberg

written by artist
Jim Dine: Birds

by Jim Dine

This Goofy Life of Constant Mourning

by Jim Dine

My Name is Jimmy

By Jonathan Jones
The Guardian
November 3, 2001

Interview with Jim Dine

By Nicholas James
ArtSlant
March 2011

From Modernism Backwards: Jim Dine's Multiple Styles

By Ken Johnson
New York Times
April 9, 2004

Lone Wolf: An Interview with Jim Dine

By Ilka Scobie
Art Net
June 28, 2010

Happenings
Happenings
Happenings
The term "happening" was coined by artist Allan Kaprow in 1957 to decribe a series of multi-media artworks on display in a single locale. In general, a happening is an art event, often staged or pre-scripted, that requires active participation from an audience to come to full fruition. This relatively new form of artistic media could be called participatory.
ArtStory: Happenings
Performance Art
Performance Art
Performance Art
Performance is a genre in which art is presented "live," usually by the artist but sometimes with collaborators or performers. It has had a role in avant-garde art throughout the twentieth century, playing an important part in anarchic movements such as Futurism and Dada. It particularly flourished in the 1960s, when Performance artists became preoccupied with the body, but it continues to be an important aspect of art practice.
ArtStory: Performance Art
Abstract Expressionism
Abstract Expressionism
Abstract Expressionism
A tendency among New York painters of the late 1940s and '50s, all of whom were committed to an expressive art of profound emotion and universal themes. The movement embraced the gestural abstraction of Willem de Kooning and Jackson Pollock, and the color field painting of Mark Rothko and others. It blended elements of Surrealism and abstract art in an effort to create a new style fitted to the postwar mood of anxiety and trauma.
ArtStory: Abstract Expressionism
Pop Art
Pop Art
Pop Art
British artists of the 1950s were the first to make popular culture the dominant subject of their art, and this idea became an international phenomenon in the 1960s. But the Pop art movement is most associated with New York, and artists such as Andy Warhol, who broke with the private concerns of the Abstract Expressionists, and turned to themes which touched on public life and mass society.
ArtStory: Pop Art
Robert Rauschenberg
Robert Rauschenberg
Robert Rauschenberg
Robert Rauschenberg, a key figure in early Pop art, admired the textural quality of Abstract Expressionism but scorned its emotional pathos. His famous "Combines" are part sculpture, part painting, and part installation.
ArtStory: Robert Rauschenberg
Jasper Johns
Jasper Johns
Jasper Johns
Jasper Johns is an American artist who rose to prominence in the late 1950s for his multi-media constructions, dubbed by critics as Neo-Dada. Johns' work, including his world-famous targets and American flags series, were important predecessors to Pop art.
ArtStory: Jasper Johns
Neo-Dada
Neo-Dada
Neo-Dada
Neo-Dada refers to works of art from the 1950s that employ popular imagery and modern materials, often resulting in something absurd. Neo-Dada is both a continuation of the earlier Dada movement and an important precursor to Pop art. Some important Neo-Dada artists include Robert Rauschenberg, Jasper Johns, Robert Morris and Allan Kaprow.
ArtStory: Neo-Dada
Conceptual Art
Conceptual Art
Conceptual Art
Conceptual art describes an influential movement that first emerged in the mid-1960s and prized ideas over the formal or visual components of traditional works of art. The artists often challenged old concepts such as beauty and quality; they also questioned the conventional means by which the public consumed art; and they rejected the conventional art object in favor of diverse mediums, ranging from maps and diagrams to texts and videos.
ArtStory: Conceptual Art
Marcel Duchamp
Marcel Duchamp
Marcel Duchamp
The French artist Marcel Duchamp was an instrumental figure in the avant-garde art worlds of Paris and New York. Moving through Dada, Surrealism, readymades, sculpture, and installation, his work involves conceptual play and an implicit attack on bourgeois art sensibilities.
ArtStory: Marcel Duchamp
Claes Oldenburg
Claes Oldenburg
Claes Oldenburg
The Swedish-American artist and architect Claes Oldenburg, an early figure in New York happenings and Pop art, is best known for his floppy sculptures and larger-than-life public works of consumer goods, musical instruments, and everyday objects.
ArtStory: Claes Oldenburg
Allan Kaprow
Allan Kaprow
Allan Kaprow
Allan Kaprow was an American painter, collagist, assemblagist and performance artist. Kaprow was best known for trailblazing the artistic concept "happenings," which were experiential artistic events rather than single works of art.
ArtStory: Allan Kaprow
John Cage
John Cage
John Cage
John Cage was an American composer and conceptual artist who incorporated chance, silence, and environmental effects into his performances. An important art theorist, he influenced choreographers, musicians, and the Fluxus artists of the 1970s.
ArtStory: John Cage
Roy Lichtenstein
Roy Lichtenstein
Roy Lichtenstein
Roy Lichtenstein was an American painter and a pioneer of the Pop art movement. His signature reproductions of comic book imagery eventually redefined how the art world viewed high vs. lowbrow art. Lichtenstein employed a unique form of painting called the Benday dot technique, in which small, closely-knit dots of paint were applied to form a much larger image.
ArtStory: Roy Lichtenstein
Andy Warhol
Andy Warhol
Andy Warhol
Andy Warhol was an American Pop artist best known for his prints and paintings of consumer goods, celebrities, and photographed disasters. One of the most famous and influential artists of the 1960s, he pioneered compositions and techniques that emphasized repetition and the mechanization of art.
ArtStory: Andy Warhol
Ed Ruscha
Ed Ruscha
Ed Ruscha
Ed Ruscha is recognized as one of the leading figures of Pop art and Conceptualism on the West Coast. From his iconic images of gasoline stations to his 'word paintings,' his work is deeply influenced by the graphic arts and deals largely with themes of commercial culture, language, and the mundane.
ArtStory: Ed Ruscha
Fluxus
Fluxus
Fluxus
Fluxus was an international network of artists of the 1960s who worked in fields ranging from music to performance to the visual arts. Taking their name from the Latin 'to flow,' Fluxus artists adopted an often anarchic and satirical approach to conventional forms of art, and their ideas paved the way for Conceptual art.
ArtStory: Fluxus
Joseph Beuys
Joseph Beuys
Joseph Beuys
Joseph Beuys was a German multi- and mixed-media artist best known for incorporating ideas of humanism, social philosophy and politics into his art. Beuys practiced everything from installation and performance art to traditional painting and "social sculpture." He was continually motivated by the belief of universal human creativity.
ArtStory: Joseph Beuys
Yoko Ono
Yoko Ono
Yoko Ono
Yoko Ono is a Japanese-American artist, musician, author, and peace activist, known for her work in avant-garde art, music and filmmaking as well as her marriage to the lendary John Lennon. Ono was highly succcesful iin bringing feminism to the forefront of the art world through her performance and conceptual pieces.
ArtStory: Yoko Ono
Jeff Koons
Jeff Koons
Jeff Koons
Jeff Koons is an American sculptor, painter and Neo-Pop artist, best known for mirror-finished stainless steel constructions of animals and everyday objects. Koons' works are often large public installations, in which viewers are invited to interact with his art.
ArtStory: Jeff Koons
Walter Hopps
Walter Hopps
Walter Hopps
Born in California to a family of surgeons, Walter Hopps decided not to follow in the family business, becoming a museum director and curator instead. Hopps was innovative in both roles, organizing the first museum retrospective of Marcel Duchamp, and acting as the US commissioner at the Sao Paolo and Venice Biennales.
Walter Hopps
Tom Wesselmann
Tom Wesselmann
Tom Wesselmann
Wesselmann was known for his paintings of nudes and his exploration of the female form. He reinterpreted the classic subject of the female nude by breaking the body down into its most suggestive elements: lips, nips, and pubes, then juxtaposing it with general, consumerist, popular culture.
ArtStory: Tom Wesselmann
Surrealism
Surrealism
Surrealism
Perhaps the most influential avant-garde movement of the century, Surrealism was founded in Paris in 1924 by a small group of writers and artists who sought to channel the unconscious as a means to unlock the power of the imagination. Much influenced by Freud, they believed that the conscious mind repressed the power of the imagination. Influenced also by Marx, they hoped that the psyche had the power to reveal the contradictions in the everyday world and spur on revolution.
ArtStory: Surrealism
Dada
Dada
Dada
Dada was an artistic and literary movement that emerged in 1916. It arose in reaction to World War I, and the nationalism and rationalism that many thought had led to the War. Influenced by several avant-gardes - Cubism, Futurism, Constructivism, and Expressionism - its output was wildly diverse, ranging from performance art to poetry, photography, sculpture, painting and collage. Emerging first in Zurich, it spread to cities including Berlin, Hanover, Paris, New York and Cologne.
ArtStory: Dada
Paul McCarthy
Paul McCarthy
Paul McCarthy
Paul McCarthy, born in Utah, based in California, is a trained painter who moved beyond that medium to explore sculpture, video, performance, and installation. McCarthy's influences range from the utmost of Americana: Disneyland, B-Movies, comics, etc., to the art of the European avant-garde. Some of McCarthy's works have been percieved as controversial by the public.
Paul McCarthy
R. B. Kitaj
R. B. Kitaj
R. B. Kitaj
R.B. Kitaj was an American Pop artist who primarily worked in England. Kitaj's paintings were figurative and brightly colored, rejecting modernism and abstraction.
R. B. Kitaj
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