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Edgar Degas

French Painter, Sculptor, and Printmaker

Movement: Impressionism

Born: July 19, 1834 - Paris, France

Died: September 27, 1917 - Paris, France

Edgar Degas Timeline

Important Art by Edgar Degas

The below artworks are the most important by Edgar Degas - that both overview the major creative periods, and highlight the greatest achievements by the artist.

The Bellini Family (1859)

The Bellini Family (1859)

Artwork description & Analysis: This portrait, with its subdued palette and its unconventional grouping of figures, such as the man having his back to the viewer, demonstrates the impact of Realism on the young Degas. He created it over the course of several trips to Italy, spanning 3-4 years. Each family member—his aunt, her husband and his two young cousins Giovanna and Giuliana—was sketched individually, and then organized into a family portrait, becoming more of a study of individual personalities than a study of them as a group. The father is suggested to be emotionally distant from his wife and daughters, while the mother stands dignified and decisive. Giovanna on the left is clearly the mother's favored daughter, while Giuliana, with one leg poised, is positioned just so to suggest a division in her allegiance.

Oil on canvas - Musée d'Orsay, Paris

Édouard Manet and Mme. Manet (1868-69)

Édouard Manet and Mme. Manet (1868-69)

Artwork description & Analysis: This unconventional portrait of Manet and his wife provides a wonderful example of Degas as the “distant spectator,” capturing a moment of solitude that the subjects might prefer go unnoticed. However, a riddle surrounds it. Degas painted it as a tribute to his friends, and it originally showed Mme. Manet playing the piano. However, some time after he had presented the portrait to them, he visited their house only to discover the painting had been mutilated and the right of the picture had been cut away. Degas was furious and removed the picture, though it was never repaired. Why Manet cut the picture down remains unknown.

Oil on canvas - Kitakyushu Municipal Museum of Art, Japan

Foyer de la Danse (1872)

Foyer de la Danse (1872)

Artwork description & Analysis: There is something unique and alluring in all of Degas's studies of ballerinas, of which there are many. In Foyer de la Danse he presents us with one of the unconventional perspectives that are so typical and distinctive in his work. Rather than evoke the light and atmosphere of the scene, as some of his Impressionist peers might have done, Degas has chosen to create a striking arrangement of space, one which echoes the experiences his contemporaries might have had throughout the new modern city. To achieve this, rather than compose the figures in a more orderly and centered fashion, he has dispersed them about the canvas, leaving a chair incongruously placed in the center foreground. Instead of viewing the room as a traditional box-like container for the figures, he paints it at an angle, suggesting multiple vantage points, almost as if this were an early blueprint for Cubism. The approach is characteristic of his modern, realist approach to composition.

Oil on canvas - Louvre, Paris

A Cotton Office in New Orleans (1873)

A Cotton Office in New Orleans (1873)

Artwork description & Analysis: Like his earlier study of the Bellini family, A Cotton Office in New Orleans is the result of several individual sketches and careful attention to detail over a length of time. In the center, reading a newspaper, is Degas's brother, Rene, and in the foreground, somberly handling a ball of cotton, is Rene's father-in-law, Michael Musson, who operated the cotton exchange. Its complex handling of deep space and multiple figures is testimony both to Degas' skill in composition, and his love of striking perspectives, something that makes his work stand out from that of many of his peers among the Realists and Impressionists. He manages to knit together the fractured space by stretching areas of white across the center of the picture, letting our eye move from the cotton on the left, through the newspaper, to the shirt of the figure on the right.

Oil on canvas - Musée des Beaux-Arts, Pau

Little Dancer of Fourteen Years (1881)

Little Dancer of Fourteen Years (1881)

Artwork description & Analysis: Originally cast in wax, with a skeleton comprised of paint brushes, Degas' study of the young ballet student Marie van Goethem was eventually cast in bronze in 1922, five years after the artist's death. In fact, 27 bronze sculptures were made. It is characteristic of a number of wax sculptures he produced after the 1860s. When he exhibited this figure at the sixth Impressionist exhibition of 1881 (the only such figure to be publicly shown), viewers were shocked by its realism. It is highly unusual in incorporating a miniature gauze skirt, silk bodice and fabric slippers, and in this respect prefigures the introduction of real objects into sculpture in the 20th century.

Bronze with cloth accessories - Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York

La Toilette (Nude Arranging Her Hair) (1884-86)

La Toilette (Nude Arranging Her Hair) (1884-86)

Artwork description & Analysis: La Toilette is typical of Degas' many nudes, and typical of an approach to the nude that made this body of work particularly controversial - both among his contemporaries and among latter day critics. It demonstrates his tendency to capture the figure from behind, while washing; to show only a fragment of the figure in order to suggest the whole; and to place the figure in shallow space, allowing her contours to produce the strong linear design that balances the picture. Degas' interest in the nude might have been encouraged by his academic training, though his posing suggests the modern innovations of the Realists and Impressionists. Indeed when Degas exhibited a suite of pastel nudes such as this at the sixth Impressionist exhibition of 1886, critics attacked their unusual posing. The picture also demonstrates the artist's use of pastel, which he devoted more time to in later years.

Pastel on paper - Pushkin Museum, Moscow



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Edgar Degas Photo

Related Art and Artists

The Bathers (1853)

The Bathers (1853)

Artist: Gustave Courbet

Artwork description & Analysis: This is one of the best examples of Courbet's non-classical treatment of nudes. In this eight foot tall painting two women are partially naked without any mythological justification or rhetoric, rendered naturally and not idealized. The painting was poorly received, with Delacroix seeing no excuse for these "naked and fat bourgeoisie.. buttocks, and meaningless gestures." But rather than being negative, the attention was good publicity, and Courbet sold the work in spite of the criticisms.

Oil on canvas - Musee Fabre, Montpellier

A Bar at the Folies-Bergere (1881-82)

A Bar at the Folies-Bergere (1881-82)

Artist: Édouard Manet

Artwork description & Analysis: This melancholic café scene is undoubtedly Manet's last masterpiece. The Folies-Bergere was a popular café concert for a fashionable and diverse crowd. The lively bar scene is reflected in the mirror behind the central figure, the sad bar girl. Her beautiful, tired eyes avoid contact with the viewer - who also plays a double role as the customer in this scene. Much has been made of the faulty perspective from the reflection in the mirror, but this was evidently part of Manet's interest in artifice and reality. On the marble countertop is an exquisite still-life arrangement of identifiable bottles of beer and liquor, flowers, and mandarins, all of which anticipate the still lifes of his final two years of life.

Oil on canvas - The Courtauld Institute Galleries, London

Table, Napkin, and Fruit (A Corner of the Table) (1895-1900)

Table, Napkin, and Fruit (A Corner of the Table) (1895-1900)

Artist: Paul Cézanne

Artwork description & Analysis: After studying Dutch and French Old Master still life painting at the Musée du Louvre and other Paris galleries, Cézanne formulated his own semi-sculptural approach to still lifes. Typically strewn across an upturned tabletop, Cézanne's pears, peaches, and other pictorial elements seem at once to rest on a solid, wooden plank and yet float across the surface of the canvas like a new kind of calligraphy. As if to press home that point, Cézanne typically includes chairs, wooden screens, water pitchers, and wine bottles to suggest that the gaze of the viewer rise vertically up the canvas, rather than plunge deep within any implied corner of a real kitchen.

Oil on canvas, 47 x 56 cm (18 1/4 x 22 in) - The Barnes Foundation, Pennsylvania

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