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Artists Christo

Christo

Bulgarian-American Sculptor, Photographer, and Conceptual Artist

Movements: Nouveau Realisme, Environmental Art

Born: June 13, 1935 - Gabrovo, Bulgaria

Quotes

"For me, the real world involves everything: risk, danger, beauty, energy."
Christo
"I am an artist, and I have to have courage... Do you know that I don't have any artworks that exist? They all go away when they're finished. Only the preparatory drawings, and collages are left, giving my works an almost legendary character. I think it takes much greater courage to create things to be one than to create things that will remain."
Christo
"If some of our works are symphonies, then wrapped walkways was chamber music."
Christo
"People think our work is monumental because it's art, but human beings do much bigger things: they build giant airports, highways for thousands of miles, much, much bigger than what we create."
Christo and Jeanne-Claude
"We borrow space and create gentle disturbances for a few days. We inherit everything that is inherent in the space to become part of the work of art. All our projects are like fabulous expeditions. The story of each project is unique. Our projects have no precedent. And so ... the hardest part of each project is to obtain the permits. Afterward, it's pleasure."
Christo and Jeanne-Claude

"The work of art is a scream of freedom."

Synopsis

Christo's early education in Soviet Socialist Realism, and his experience fleeing his home as a refugee of political revolution, informed his career's numerous forays into real-world politics as a primary subject and source of his artmaking. His 35-year collaboration with the artist Jeanne-Claude, and the large-scale site-specific works they co-authored, stand out as his career's greatest achievements. Together, the duo created monumentally-scaled sculptures and installations which often utilized the technique of draping or wrapping large portions of existent landscapes, buildings, and industrial objects with specially engineered fabric. Christo and Jeanne-Claude made works that stand out as some of the most grandiose, ambitious, site-specific art works ever. While they often insisted that the aesthetic properties of their art constituted its primary value, reactions from audiences and critics worldwide have long recognized a broader commentary operating across their work, and themes ranging from environmental degradation, to the vexed history of the twentieth century and the Cold War, to the perseverance of democratic and humanist ideals.

Key Ideas

Christo and Jeanne-Claude's interventions in the natural world and the built environment altered both the physical form and the visual experience of the sites, thereby allowing viewers to perceive and understand the locations with a new appreciation of their formal, energetic, and volumetric qualities.
The artists' choice to remain intermittently inside and outside the frameworks of legality lends much of their work a built-in aspect of dissent and resistance. It also expands upon and emboldens a long legacy of quasi-legality in art, where art exists in a realm somewhere between the "real" world and fantasy, and affords the art world with distinct privileges as well as restrictions.
Christo and Jeanne-Claude often worked outside the gallery system, refusing to negotiate sales of drawings and commissions through an art dealer. In this respect, they took a definitive stance on the political and economic infrastructure of the global art market, and set a precedent for artists working outside the system who still cultivated an international level of success.
Whereas Land Artists usually made a point of blurring the lines of distinction between the art work itself and its natural setting and/or materials, Christo and Jeanne-Claude's art relied on developing high contrast between the engineered, man-made elements and the site's organic characteristics. Their work therefore pushes the envelope of what constitutes site-specific, large-scale installation art, and expands the genre discourse to incorporate controversial themes of industrialization, bureaucratization, and late capitalism.

Most Important Art

Wall of Oil Barrels - Rideau de Fer (The Iron Curtain) (1961-1962)
Christo and Jeanne-Claude's first collaborations involved wrapping dozens of oil barrels with cloth and rope, and stacking them in layers across public spaces so as to partially or completely block access. Earlier iterations of this site-specific work on Rue Visconti in Paris included a version in the courtyard of Christo's studio, as well as 1961's Stacked Oil Barrels and Dockside Packages, both of which were installed for two weeks on the harbor in Cologne, Germany. Particularly in Wall of Oil Barrels, the artists expanded the scope and scale of the previous works, creating a larger and more impenetrable wall of both wrapped and unwrapped barrels that blockaded a section of a city street. Christo was propelled by the idea of spatially reconfiguring a specific outdoor location with a common, contextually misplaced object, a notion that would play a role in many of his future creations and collaborations with Jeanne-Claude.

The piece utilized 89 barrels, and measured 13.2 feet wide, 2.7 feet deep, and 13.7 feet tall. It took eight hours to assemble. An expression of the artists' views on the disruptive nature of the Cold War and the Berlin Wall, which was then in the process of being built, Wall of Oil Barrels commented on the politics of space, freedom, and mobility under increasingly conservative and divisive governmental policies throughout Europe. Since they installed it without permission, Parisian authorities demanded that the piece be dismantled, but Jeanne-Claude was able to persuade them to allow the work to remain in place for several hours. This monumental work and its brief celebrity as a public nuisance helped Christo and Jeanne-Claude gain early notoriety in Paris.

Oil barrels became an important medium for Christo in 1958. He had previously been utilizing smaller, everyday, affordable objects like beer cans, but the barrels initiated a significant shift towards larger works, while still adhering to a distinct type of sculptural form. Wall of Oil Barrels was Christo's first large scale work, and marked the beginning of the collaborative, massively scaled, site-specific works for which he and Jeanne-Claude would become famous.
- Rue Visconti, Paris
More Art Works


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Biography

Early Period

Christo Biography

Christo was born in Gabrovo, Bulgaria, a small town in the Balkan Mountains. His given name was Christo Vladimirov Javacheff, and his parents were Ivan Vladimir Javacheff, a chemist and a businessman who ran a fabric factory, and Tzveta Dimitrova, a political activist and a secretary at the Academy of Fine Arts in Sofia, Bulgaria. Ivan and Tzveta were socially connected with artists and intellectuals around Gabrovo, and Christo grew up surrounded by progressive ideas and culture. Christo began creating art early on, inspired by his parents' bohemian social circle, and was encouraged by several professors from the Academy of Fine Arts who would frequent the family home's to visit his parents. Politics also shaped his early life, and as a young boy Christo witnessed his birth country's invasion by the Nazis, and later by the Soviets.

Christo enrolled at the Fine Art Academy in Sofia in 1952, and studied and worked there until 1956. The curriculum at the academy focused mainly on Soviet Socialist Realism, a government-mandated style of artistic production that was developed in the early twentieth century in the Soviet Union as a specifically non-capitalist form of populist art. Christo also became involved in a campus Communist Youth group, where he assisted in creating propaganda posters in line with the tenets and techniques of Socialist Realist political art.

After he graduated from the academy, Christo left for Prague, Czechoslovakia. There he forayed into theater design, and studied with the Burian Theatre, where he was first exposed to the work of Matisse, Miró, Klee, and Kandinsky. During his first year in Prague, the Hungarian Revolution broke out in 1956, a situation that became particularly dangerous for students and members of the artistic and intellectual classes. Christo fled Hungary by bribing a railway worker to stow him away on a train transporting medicines and medical supplies. He made it safely to Vienna, Austria, but the move forced him to lose his Bulgarian citizenship and become known as a "stateless person," a UN designation initiated in 1954 to manage the mass refugee crisis following World War II. He stayed briefly in Vienna, studying sculpture at the Academy of Fine Arts under the artist Wotruba for one semester. He then relocated to Geneva for one year, and then on to Paris in 1958, where he met Jeanne-Claude de Guillebon, his future partner, and remained in the city for the next six years.

Middle Period

Christo Photo

Christo's early years in Paris were not without difficulty, as he struggled to learn the language and assimilate into the culture. He made a living by painting portraits on the street, which he felt were not representative of his skill or true artistic identity, so he signed these under the name "Javacheff" rather than with his own. During these years, he met Arman, Daniel Spoerri, Jean Tinguely, and Yves Klein, all artists associated with the Nouveau Realisme movement in which the objects and materials of everyday life are directly appropriated and incorporated into multi-media works. Christo began experimenting with everyday objects such as beer cans, bicycles, and road signs.

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Christo Biography Continues

Christo first met Jeanne-Claude's mother when he painted a street portrait of her. He was initially attracted to Jeanne-Claude's half-sister Joyce, and at the time Jeanne-Claude was engaged to Phillipe Planchon. Christo and Jeanne-Claude found out that they had been born on the same day, in the same year, and within the same hour, and a partnership quickly formed in art making and in life. Jeanne-Claude remained engaged to Planchon even as she became pregnant with Christo's child, and went through with the wedding. Eventually she revealed the truth to Planchon, parted ways with him, and Christo and Jeanne-Claude's son Cyril was born in 1960.

The two began working together creatively in Paris. They experimented with oil barrels, first by wrapping them, and then creating large-scale installations that would later become hallmarks of the couples' collaborative works. They started to gain footing in the city and became recognized as viable artists in the early 1960s. In 1964 the couple moved to New York City and lived as undocumented immigrants for three years, squatting in an illegal building that they eventually purchased in 1973 when Christo also became an American citizen. Christo created life-sized installations entitled Store Fronts and Show Windows, and sold these large-scale gallery works to help finance his other, less saleable projects, which included wrapping entire buildings in Italy and the U.S., and working with landscapes from the Australian coast to the mountain ranges of Colorado.

Later Period

Christo Portrait

Jeanne-Claude was originally seen as Christo's publicist and business manager, but was later given due credit for her role as his creative and administrative partner. The pair emphasizes that everything they created since the 1960s had been a dual effort, and for marketing purposes, they chose only to put Christo's name on their artwork. The couple worked from their studio and home in New York, rarely hired assistants, and self-funded their projects through the sale of sketches, blueprints, and 3-D models. Their collaboration was so integral to their process that they often travelled on different planes to ensure that if one plane crashed, the other could continue to work on their joint projects.

The couple were working on two simultaneous projects, Over the River in Colorado and The Mastaba in the United Arab Emirates, when Jeanne-Claude suffered from a brain aneurysm in 2009. She died from resulting complications on November 18, at the age of 74. Christo has continued working toward the realization of their large-scale works since her death.


Legacy

Jeanne-Claude and Christo's outdoor works are regarded as some of the most ambitious and innovative in the world, thought they are oftentimes controversial due to their size and questionable impact on the environment. To address these controversies, the artists conducted thorough environmental impact studies and recycled every material that they expressly manufactured.

Aesthetic impact is the value that Christo and Jeanne-Claude have emphasized as the most important, intended aspect of their work, yet the effect their work has had on the world far exceeds the merits of aesthetics alone. Their work pushes the boundaries of convention and categorization of art, in particular the notion of sculpture as a fixed, permanent object. Acting directly upon the environment, rather than at a contemplative remove from it, implies for some that their work is a commentary on notions ranging from freedom, to human agency, to the powerful impermanence of the natural world. Jeanne-Claude has in fact likened their work to a rainbow, made all the more beautiful and exciting because it is temporary.

The couple's efforts have been recognized by filmmakers and photographers, and a 1973 documentary about their work was nominated for an Academy Award. In 2004, they won the Achievement in Contemporary Sculpture Award, and in 2006, they received the Best Project in a Public Space award for The Gates, as well as the Vilcek Prize in Fine Arts for foreigners working abroad.

Influences and Connections

Influences on artist

Artists, Friends, Movements

Influenced by artist

Artists, Friends, Movements

Christo
Interactive chart with Christo's main influences, and the people and ideas that the artist influenced in turn.
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Artists

Marcel Duchamp
Giotto
Auguste Rodin

Friends

Pierre Restany
Arman
Daniel Spoerri
Jean Tinguely
Yves Klein

Movements

Nouveau Realisme
Constructivism
Land Art
Environmental Art
Christo
Christo
Years Worked: 1950s - Present

Artists

Wolfgang Volz
Albert and David Maysles

Friends

Dorothy and Herbert Vogel

Movements

Land Art
Public Sculpture
Environmental Art

Content compiled and written by Laura Fiesel

Edited and revised by Brynn Hatton

" Artist Overview and Analysis". [Internet]. . TheArtStory.org
Content compiled and written by Laura Fiesel
Edited and revised by Brynn Hatton
Available from:
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Useful Resources on Christo

Books
Websites
Articles
Videos
More
The books and articles below constitute a bibliography of the sources used in the writing this page. These also suggest some accessible resources for further research, especially ones that can be found and purchased via the internet.
biography
Christo amd Jeanne-Claude: An Authorized Biography

By Burt Chernow and Wolfgang Volz

Christo and Jeanne-Claude: A Biography

By Burt Chernow, and Wolfgang Volz

written by artist
The Gates: Project for Central Park, New York City

By Christo and Jeanne-Claude

ChristoandJeanneClaude.net

Official Artist Site

NYC.gov

Information about installation and legislation for The Gates

Gated

By Perter Schjeldahl
The New Yorker
2005

Christo's Wrapped Reichstag: Symbol for the New Germany

By Paul Goldberger
The New York Times

Various NY Times Articles on Christo's Work

Christo

By Charles Taylor
Salon
April 11, 2000

Land Art
Land Art
Land Art
Land art, or Earth art, a term coined by artist Robert Smithson, refers to artworks from the 1960s and '70s that employed land and other natural elements. It is typical of a time when artists rejected the traditional art object, expanded definitions of sculpture, and sought to move art outside the conventional art world structure of galleries and museums.
ArtStory: Land Art
Soviet Socialist Realism
Soviet Socialist Realism
Soviet Socialist Realism
The dominant style in the Soviet Union characerized by the glorified depiction of values to socialism or communism through the use of realistic imagery.
Soviet Socialist Realism
Henri Matisse
Henri Matisse
Henri Matisse
Henri Matisse was a French painter and sculptor who helped forge modern art. From his early Fauvist works to his late cutouts, he emphasized expansive fields of color, the expressive potential of gesture, and the sensuality inherent in art-making.
ArtStory: Henri Matisse
Joan Miró
Joan Miró
Joan Miró
Active in Paris from the 1920s onward, and influenced by Surrealism, Miró developed a style of biomorphic abstraction which blended abstract figurative motifs, large fields of color, and primitivist symbols. This style would be an important inspiration for many Abstract Expressionists.
ArtStory: Joan Miró
Paul Klee
Paul Klee
Paul Klee
The Swiss-born painter Paul Klee worked in a variety of styles, including Expressionism, geometric abstraction, and collage. His most famous works have a mystical quality and make use of linear and pictorial symbols.
ArtStory: Paul Klee
Wassily Kandinsky
Wassily Kandinsky
Wassily Kandinsky
A member of the German Expressionist group Der Blaue Reiter, and later a teacher at the Bauhaus, Kandinsky is best known for his pioneering breakthrough into expressive abstraction in 1913. His work prefigures that of the American Abstract Expressionists.
ArtStory: Wassily Kandinsky
Arman
Arman
Arman
Born Armand Pierre Fernandez, Arman is a French painter who moved from using the objects as paintbrushes, to using them as the painting itself. He is best known for his "accumulations" and destruction/recomposition of objects.
ArtStory: Arman
Daniel Spoerri
Daniel Spoerri
Daniel Spoerri
Daniel Spoerri is a Swiss artist and writer born in Romania. Spoerri is best known for his snare-pictures, a type of assemblage or object art. He was one of the original signers of the manifesto creating the Nouveaux Realistes art movement.
Daniel Spoerri
Jean Tinguely
Jean Tinguely
Jean Tinguely
Jean Tinguely is best known for his sculptural machines, known as metamechanics, that were made in the Dada tradition. His art often satirized the mindless overproduction of material goods in advanced industrial society.
ArtStory: Jean Tinguely
Yves Klein
Yves Klein
Yves Klein
Yves Klein attacked many of the ideas of the art world that underpinned abstract painting, audience participation, and other approaches to making and viewing art. Also, he famously used a single color, the rich shade of ultramarine that he made his own, "International Klein Blue."
ArtStory: Yves Klein
Nouveau Realisme
Nouveau Realisme
Nouveau Realisme
Nouveau Realisme (New Realism) refers to an artistic movement founded in 1960 by the art critic Pierre Restany and artists including Yves Klein, Arman, Jean Tinguely, Cesar Baldaccini, and Daniel Spoerri. The relatively short-lived French movement attempted to expand the materials and ideas of new art in a Europe that was recovering from horrible war and a new forms of cultural and commercial consumption.
ArtStory: Nouveau Realisme
Environmental Art
Environmental Art
Environmental Art
Environmental art refers to art dealing with ecological issues and/or the natural, such as the formal, the political, the historical, or the social context. In its early phases it was most associated with sculpture. The expanding term of environmental art also encompasses the scope of the urban landscape.
Environmental Art
Marcel Duchamp
Marcel Duchamp
Marcel Duchamp
The French artist Marcel Duchamp was an instrumental figure in the avant-garde art worlds of Paris and New York. Moving through Dada, Surrealism, readymades, sculpture, and installation, his work involves conceptual play and an implicit attack on bourgeois art sensibilities.
ArtStory: Marcel Duchamp
Giotto
Giotto
Giotto
Giotto di Bondone, better known simply as Giotto, was an Italian painter and architect from Florence in the late Middle Ages. He is generally considered the first in a line of great artists who contributed to the Italian Renaissance. His masterwork is the decoration of the Scrovegni Chapel in Padua, commonly called the Arena Chapel, completed around 1305.
Giotto
Auguste Rodin
Auguste Rodin
Auguste Rodin
The French artist Auguste Rodin is often considered the father of modern sculpture. His diverse oeuvre includes traditonal styles, strongly allegorical work, and the fragments and textured physicality that are hallmarks of modernism.
ArtStory: Auguste Rodin
Pierre Restany
Pierre Restany
Pierre Restany
Pierre Restany was a French art critic and cultural philosopher. In 1960 Pierre Restany created the idea and coined the term "Nouveau Realisme" with Yves Klein during a collective exposition in the Apollinaire gallery in Milan. It was an idea that united a group of French and Italian artists.
Pierre Restany
Constructivism
Constructivism
Constructivism
Russian Constructivism emerged with the Revolution of 1917 and sought a new approach to making objects, one which abolished the traditional concern with composition and replaced it with 'construction,' which called for a new attention to the technical character of materials. It was hoped that these inquiries would yield ideas for mass production. The movement was an important influence on geometric abstraction.
ArtStory: Constructivism
Wolfgang Volz
Wolfgang Volz
Wolfgang Volz
Wolfgang Volz is a German actor known for his roles on stage, in television and in film. He is also a well-known voice actor.
Wolfgang Volz
Albert and David Maysles
Albert and David Maysles
Albert and David Maysles
Albert and David Maysles were brothers who worked as a team in American documentary film, and best known for their direct cinema style.
Albert and David Maysles
Dorothy and Herbert Vogel
Dorothy and Herbert Vogel
Dorothy and Herbert Vogel
Dorothy and Herbert Vogel were civil servants to New York City, best known for their vast collection of post 1960's art, mostly of minimalist and conceptual art.
Dorothy and Herbert Vogel
Public Sculpture
Public Sculpture
Public Sculpture
Permanent sculptural works are sometimes integrated with architecture and landscaping in the creation or renovation of buildings and sites. Sculpture intended as public art is often constructed of durable, easily cared-for material.
Public Sculpture
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