SynopsisAmerican sculptor John Chamberlain is internationally known for his long career of creating vibrantly colored, dynamic sculptures from crushed, twisted and bent automobile parts. Inspired by the scale, color and impulsive creation of Abstract Expressionist work, Chamberlain was a pioneering force through his use of found materials and diverse colors. While also experimenting with a variety of sculptural media, as well as with film and painting, he greatly impacted many generations of artistic movements, including Minimalism and Pop art, and continues to create inventive work today.
ChildhoodJohn Angus Chamberlain was born into a family that had owned a series of taverns since 1835. He grew up in Chicago with his mother and grandmother after his parents divorced when he was very young. As a boy, Chamberlain was interested in becoming an aeronautical engineer until developing a fascination with music, particularly Schubert, around 12 years old. When his musical abilities were lacking, he turned to other art forms. At 16 years old, Chamberlain entered the U.S. Navy, serving aboard an aircraft carrier in the Pacific and Mediterranean from 1943 to 1946.
Early TrainingAfter leaving the Navy, Chamberlain used the G.I. Bill to study hairdressing in Chicago. He began his brief formal art training at the school of the Art Institute of Chicago (1951-1952), then spent the following two years working in Chicago as a hairdresser and makeup artist. His studies at Black Mountain College in North Carolina (1955-1956) were most instrumental in shaping his artistic development. While creating welded metal sculptures highly influenced by David Smith, he met poets Charles Olsen, Robert Duncan and Robert Creeley, whom he has described as "kindred spirits." These writers made a strong impact on Chamberlain, who began writing his own poems, arranging words and fragments he had collected from various sources into new configurations. This technique also informed his sculptural work, as he began using diverse, found materials to shape his creations. The first full manifestation of this direction was Shortstop (1957), Chamberlain's initial sculpture made from automobile parts.
Mature PeriodAfter leaving Black Mountain, Chamberlain moved to New York, where he became a regular at the famed Cedar Tavern with other Abstract Expressionists. At this time, he expanded on the use of steel car remnants, exploiting the existing colors of the material in his sculptures. Beginning in the early 1960s, his work was shown to strong acclaim, appearing as part of the Museum of Modern Art's 1961 The Art of Assemblage exhibition, the Venice Biennale in 1964 and in several Leo Castelli Gallery shows.
During the 1960s and 70s, he moved every few years between New York and locations such as New Mexico, Wisconsin, California and Texas, working in other media such as fiberglass, urethane foam and galvanized steel, purposely avoiding the steel car scraps for which he had become known. He received the prestigious Guggenheim Fellowship in 1966, and again in 1977. In 1968, inspired in part by his friend Andy Warhol, Chamberlain began directing films including Wedding Night, The Secret Life of Hernando Cortez and Wide Point.
He also continued expanding his sculptural work, creating a series of white and chrome sculptures as well as others using brown paper bags, Plexiglas or aluminum foil. The Guggenheim gave Chamberlain his first retrospective exhibition in 1971, having several others in later years. He returned to automobile parts as his primary material in 1974, creating wall reliefs and freestanding sculptures in both small and monumental scales. While continuing in this direction, he also began working with still photography, an interest that continued as he proceeded with his career.
Late PeriodBeginning in the 1980s, Chamberlain lived and worked in Sarasota, Florida, where he had more space to create ever-larger sculptures that expanded both vertically and horizontally. He later established a studio on Shelter Island, New York, where he lives and works today. Continuing to sculpt primarily with welded metals, Chamberlain broadened his artistic output, using stainless steel and composing works from ribbon-like strips. While earlier works had incorporated the material's existing colors, later works featured added paint, often in bright colors and patterns. In addition to crumpling and crushing his media, Chamberlain has recently also begun integrating spiral shapes into his work. He is currently represented by Pace Wildenstein in New York.
LegacyFor the past six decades, Chamberlain has created highly innovative sculptural work that aligned him with the Abstract Expressionist painters, while also setting him apart in his embrace of three-dimensional space. His consistent use of color at a time when sculptors were only beginning to integrate such elements further set him apart as crucial to the development of post-war American art. Chamberlain has received numerous honors and awards for his work, which can be found in major collections worldwide.
Below are John Chamberlain's major influences, and the people and ideas that he influenced in turn.
Vincent van Gogh
Years Worked: 1951 - Present
Quotes"My work has nothing to do with car wrecks."
"I wasn't interested in car parts per se, I was interested in either the color or the shape or the amount... Just the sheet metal. It already had a coat of paint on it. And some of it was formed.... I believe that common materials are the best materials."
"...one day something - some one thing - pops out at you, and you pick it up, and you take it over, and you put it somewhere else, and it fits. It's just the right thing at the right moment. You can do the same thing with words or with metal."
"You use [colors] in a graffiti manner, or as though you were writing a foreign language that you didn't really know, so you write as if it were a penmanship exercise rather than communication."
WHERE TO SEE WORKS:
Museum of Modern Artwww.MoMA.org
Metropolitan Museum of Artwww.METmuseum.org
Written by ArtistHans Ulrich Obrist and John Chamberlain: The Conversation Series
WorksJohn Chamberlain: A Catalogue Raisonne 1954-1985
John Chamberlain: The Foam Sculptures
John Chamberlain: Early works
John Chamberlain - Current Works and Fond Memories - Sculptures and Photographs 1967-1995
Exhibition: Amsterdam 1996
Crossroads of American Sculpture: David Smith, George Rickey, John Chamberlain, Robert Indiana, William T. Wiley, Bruce Nauman
John Chamerlain: Papier Paradisio
Pure Sculpture by John Chamberlain
May 22, 1987
The New York Times
By Vivien Raynor
Unshackled, Unconventional Sculptor
June 13, 1993
The New York Times
By Carol Strickland
John Chamberlain's Heavy Metal
February 21, 2008
The New York Sun
By Daniel Kunitz
In the Studio: John Chamberlain
July 2, 2008
Art + Auction
By Annette Grant
The Chamberlain Couch - 1976
Chamberlain makes a couch for artist John Hersey
John Chamberlain at Pace, New York - March 2008
Artist's Studio: John Chamberlain - May 27, 2008
Plum TV interview with John Chamberlain
Artist in Popular Culture
The Secret Life of Hernando Cortez - 1969
Chamberlain directed and appeared in this film.
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ArtStory: David Smith Page
|Julio Gonzalez was a Catalan-Spanish sculptor and painter. His best known early works were Synthetic Cubist paintings, and later in life turned to bronze and iron welding, creating many famous abstract sculptures. In 1927 he introduced Picasso to oxy-fuel welding and cutting techniques, and became one of the artist's closest confidantes.
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ArtStory: Vincent van Gogh Page
|Donald Judd was an early and influential Minimalist artist who made large-scale geometric objects, often of industrial materials and serially arranged on the floor or wall. He helped found the Chinati Foundation in Marfa, Texas, where many key works of Minimalism are installed.
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|Franz Kline was an American abstract painter and one of the pioneers of Abstract Expressionism. His signature black-and-white abstractions were inspired by Japanese calligraphy, and inspired a later generation of artists who created Minimalism.
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|Robert Creeley was an American poet and original member of the Black Mountain poets during the mid-twentieth century. Creeley wrote in what some critics cubbed a "free verse" style, wherein traditional poetic codes and rhythms were largely disregarded. He was the New York Poet Laureate from 1989 to 1991.
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ArtStory: Abstract Expressionism Page
|Russian Constructivism emerged with the Revolution of 1917 and sought a new approach to making objects, one which abolished the traditional concern with composition and replaced it with 'construction,' which called for a new attention to the technical character of materials. It was hoped that these inquiries would yield ideas for mass production. The movement was an important influence on geometric abstraction.
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|Cubism was developed by Pablo Picasso and Georges Braque between 1907-1911, and it continued to be highly influential long after its decline. This classic phase has two stages: 'Analytic', in which forms seem to be 'analyzed' and fragmented; and 'Synthetic', in which pre-existing materials such as newspaper and wood veneer are collaged to the surface of the canvas.
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|Frank Stella is an American artist whose geometric paintings and shaped canvases underscore the idea of the painting as object. A major influence on Minimalism, his iconic works include nested black and white stripes and concentric, angular half-circles in bright colors.
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|Nancy Rubins is an American sculptor and conceptual artist. She is best known for her large-scale public artworks that employ salvaged industrial and consumer goods.
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|British artists of the 1950s were the first to make popular culture the dominant subject of their art, and this idea became an international phenomenon in the 1960s. But the Pop art movement is most associated with New York, and artists such as Andy Warhol, who broke with the private concerns of the Abstract Expressionists, and turned to themes which touched on public life and mass society.
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|When Harold Rosenberg coined the term "Action Painting," he was emphasizing the importance of not the artwork itself - the objet d'art - but the process by which the work was made. Thus, Process Art refers to the actions or, in some cases, the performance of creating a work of art. The actual term was popularized by Robert Morris for a 1968 exhibition at the Guggenheim Museum.