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Mary Cassatt

American Draftsman, Painter, and Printmaker

Movement: Impressionism

Born: May 22, 1844, Allegheny City, Pennsylvania, United States

Died: June 14, 1926, Mesnil-Theribus, Oise, France

Important Art by Mary Cassatt

The below artworks are the most important by Mary Cassatt - that both overview the major creative periods, and highlight the greatest achievements by the artist.


Little Girl in Blue Armchair (1878)

Artwork description & Analysis: In this important work of her mature career, Cassatt chose to portray a young girl alone in a domestic interior. The visible brushwork and the figure's informal pose are hallmarks of Impressionism; the asymmetrical composition, raised viewpoint, shallow space, and abrupt cropping of the scene all indicate the influence of Japanese art. Cassatt also brings her own astute observations to the construction of this image. The girl, who was a child of a friend of Degas, is seated in a sprawling, unselfconscious manner that reminds the viewer of her young age, and the way that she is dwarfed by the adult furniture around her evokes the awkwardness and isolation of certain stages of childhood.

Oil on canvas - National Gallery of Art, Washington, D.C.


In the Loge (1878)

Artwork description & Analysis: This canvas shows a stylish woman attending a daytime performance at the Comedie-Francaise, a famous theater in Paris. The woman's profile is set off against the red velvet and gilt decoration of the box seats behind her as she raises a pair of opera glasses to her eyes. The black of her dress is echoed in the clothing of other figures in the background, including a man several boxes down who regards her through his own glasses. Cassatt has perceptively grasped the fact that the members of the well-dressed audience are putting on their own performances for one another. The main figure may be watching the stage or observing her fellow theatergoers while she herself becomes the subject of the man's gaze; meanwhile, the viewer, who is placed just beside the woman, takes in the entire scene. When Cassatt exhibited In the Loge in Boston in 1878, one critic praised it by writing that Cassatt's work "surpassed the strength of most men."

Oil on canvas - Museum of Fine Arts, Boston


Lydia Reading the Morning Paper (No. 1) (1878-79)

Artwork description & Analysis: Cassatt's older sister, Lydia, was one of the artist's favorite models. In this painting, Lydia is seated in profile, with her gown and her face painted in the same loose, feathery brushstrokes as the background and the armchair that locks her diagonally posed figure into the asymmetrical composition. The typically Impressionist palette of white, rose, light blues, and fresh green evokes a light-hearted mood, yet this is also a serious moment: in showing her subject reading a newspaper, Cassatt alludes to the importance of women's growing literacy in the nineteenth century, to their increasing involvement in society beyond the home, and to their awareness of current events as they began to fight for voting rights.

Oil on canvas - Joslyn Art Museum, Omaha, Nebraska


A Woman and a Girl Driving (1881)

Artwork description & Analysis: In addition to capturing the life of domestic interiors, theaters, and opera houses, Cassatt also trained her gaze on figures in Paris's parks and gardens, some of the few public spaces where respectable women could move freely in society. The models for this painting were Cassatt's sister, Lydia, and Degas's young niece. The setting is the Bois de Boulogne, a large, verdant park that was a popular meeting place and a scenic destination for pleasure rides. Cassatt honed in tightly on her subject, cropping the horse at the left side of the composition and the carriage at the right side and bottom. The small girl, dressed in pale pink, sits quietly beside the woman who holds the reins; this contrast between youth and adulthood, experience and learning, is one of Cassatt's many moments of psychological observation. This work was also unusual for its time in its depiction of a well-bred woman performing a physically active (if still genteel) task.

Oil on canvas - Philadelphia Museum of Art


The Letter (1890-91)

Artwork description & Analysis: In April 1890, Cassatt attended an exhibition of Japanese colored woodcuts at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts in Paris. Following this event, she decided to create a series of ten prints showing the life of a modern-day woman. The completed series included scenes of women performing their toilettes, washing their children, having tea, and so on; this example shows a woman sealing a letter she has just written at her desk. The composition balances patterns (the wallpaper, the woman's dress) against solid areas of color (the vertical back of the desk, the paper of the letter and envelope) and brings the viewer close to the room's shallow space, where forced perspective is evident in the oddly skewed writing panel of the desk. These stylistic choices were influenced by traditional Japanese printmaking, yet the woman's garments and the other objects are all contemporary details of Cassatt's world.

Drypoint and aquatint on paper - The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York


The Child's Bath (1893)

Artwork description & Analysis: In this intimately observed vignette of a woman bathing her young daughter, Cassatt again combines certain stylistic influences of Japanese art with the subject matter of her own milieu. The variety of patterns in this composition, including several floral designs and the bold stripes of the woman's dress, is united by a restrained palette of grays and mauves; the soft coloration allows the viewer to concentrate on the subject of the scene, the close relationship between mother and child. Their intimacy is demonstrated by their closely positioned faces and by the circle of touch that extends from the woman's hand on the child's foot to the child's hand on the woman's knee. In their shared absorption in their task, they are as closely related as the pitcher and bowl that they are using for this domestic ritual. In works such as this one, Cassatt evoked the traditional artistic subject matter of the Madonna and Child, making her imagery secular rather than religious.

Oil on canvas - Art Institute of Chicago

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Art Institute of Chicago (1893)

Artwork description & Analysis: Cassatt's largest work, a 58-by-12-foot mural, was painted for the Women's Building of the 1893 World's Columbian Exposition in Chicago. It was comprised of three panels: Young Girls Pursuing Fame; Young Women Plucking the Fruits of Knowledge or Science; and Arts, Music, Dancing. Unfortunately, the entire mural was destroyed at the close of the exposition and is only recorded in a few black-and-white photographs and one colored print of the central panel. This detail of Young Women Plucking the Fruits of Knowledge or Science provides a glimpse into Cassatt's influences and themes for this monumental work. The mural borrowed from sources as diverse as Italian Renaissance frescoes, Japanese prints, and Les Nabis, but once again Cassatt transformed these materials into something that was hers alone. By showing a community of women assisting and supporting one another, she presented the audience of the Columbian Exposition with a very modern scene that symbolized female independence and progress on the verge of a new century in America.

Oil on canvas - (destroyed)


Mother and Child (c. 1905)

Artwork description & Analysis: By the turn of the century, Cassatt was working almost exclusively with the subject of mothers and children, using professional models for her figures. In this painting, she again looks closely at an interaction between women at different stages of life. The mother's fashionable outfit serves as a foil for the child's innocent nudity, and the two figures are united by their gestures and their gazes. By including two mirrors within the composition, Cassatt established a complex spatial and conceptual arrangement of images within images. Artists from Diego Velazquez and Peter Paul Rubens to Edouard Manet had depicted women looking at themselves in mirrors, seeing themselves as objects of beauty to be admired by others. Cassatt was aware of this tradition in Western art, but she subverted it in Mother and Child. Here, the woman and girl both look into the small, circular mirror, where they regard the child's reflection together. In this enigmatic work, the true subjects then become the young girl's evolving feminine identity and her future womanhood under the guidance of maternal influence.

Oil on canvas - National Gallery of Art, Washington, D.C.



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Related Art and Artists


Sleep (1866)

Artist: Gustave Courbet

Artwork description & Analysis: This work shows Courbet's interest in an erotic Realism that became prevalent in his later work. Raw eroticism is delivered without aid of cupids or mythological justification of any kind, making this work vulgar to those with the prevailing taste of the day. Such unsanctified nudes provoked much discussion about flaws in Courbet's character and art, but the artist reveled in the added attention and increased reputation as a confrontational artist.

Oil on canvas - Musee des Beaux-Arts de la Ville de Paris


Foyer de la Danse (1872)

Artist: Edgar Degas

Artwork description & Analysis: There is something unique and alluring in all of Degas's studies of ballerinas, of which there are many. In Foyer de la Danse he presents us with one of the unconventional perspectives that are so typical and distinctive in his work. Rather than evoke the light and atmosphere of the scene, as some of his Impressionist peers might have done, Degas has chosen to create a striking arrangement of space, one which echoes the experiences his contemporaries might have had throughout the new modern city. To achieve this, rather than compose the figures in a more orderly and centered fashion, he has dispersed them about the canvas, leaving a chair incongruously placed in the center foreground. Instead of viewing the room as a traditional box-like container for the figures, he paints it at an angle, suggesting multiple vantage points, almost as if this were an early blueprint for Cubism. The approach is characteristic of his modern, realist approach to composition.

Oil on canvas - Louvre, Paris


Artwork Images

Hoar Frost, the Old Road to Ennery, Pointoise (1873)

Artist: Camille Pissarro

Artwork description & Analysis: Considered one of Pissarro's masterpieces, Hoar Frost is one of five paintings he exhibited at the first Impressionist exhibition in 1874. Here, a peasant worker traverses a field in Pissarro's hometown at the time, Pointoise. The painting's emphasis on color harmony is an important antecedent to Neo-Impressionist techniques, but his true achievement is bringing a focus on composition to the Impressionist canvas. Cézanne famously said "We must make of Impressionism something solid like the art of the museum" in reference to the movement's lack of underlying structure. Cézanne's mentor Pissarro, however, used tilled fields crossed with foot-trampled paths and regularly spaced trees on a horizon to create a balanced composition. The cool color palette and offset vanishing point fall comfortably into the rhythm of the canvas, directing the viewer's attention to the wandering figure.

Oil on canvas - Musée D'Orsay, Paris

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