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Artists Leonora Carrington

Leonora Carrington

British Painter

Movement: Surrealism

Born: April 6, 1917 - Clayton Green, Lancashire, England

Died: May 25, 2011 - Mexico City, Mexico

Quotes

"Painting is a need, not a choice."
Leonora Carrington
"Reason must know the heart's reasons and every other reason."
Leonora Carrington
"Dawn is the time when nothing breathes, the hour of silence. Everything is transfixed, only the light moves."
Leonora Carrington
"The duty of the right eye is to plunge into the telescope, whereas the left eye interrogates the microscope."
Leonora Carrington
"I am as mysterious to myself as I am to others."
Leonora Carrington
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"I didn't have time to be anyone's muse... I was too busy rebelling against my family and learning to be an artist."

Synopsis

Leonora Carrington established herself as both a key figure in the Surrealist movement and an artist of remarkable individuality. Her biography is colorful, including a romance with the older artist Max Ernst, an escape from the Nazis during World War II, mental illness, and expatriate life in Mexico. In her art, her dreamlike, often highly detailed compositions of fantastical creatures in otherworldly settings are based on an intensely personal symbolism. The artist herself preferred not to explain this private visual language to others. However, themes of metamorphosis and magic, as well as frequent whimsy, have given her art an enduring appeal.

Key Ideas

Carrington shared the Surrealists' keen interest in the unconscious mind and dream imagery. To these ideas she added her own unique blend of cultural influences, including Celtic literature, Renaissance painting, Central American folk art, medieval alchemy, and Jungian psychology.
Carrington's art is populated by hybrid figures that are half-human and half-animal, or combinations of various fantastic beasts that range from fearsome to humorous. Through this signature imagery, she explored themes of transformation and identity in an ever-changing world.
Carrington's work touches on ideas of sexual identity yet avoids the frequent Surrealist stereotyping of women as objects of male desire. Instead, she drew on her life and friendships to represent women's self-perceptions, the bonds between women of all ages, and female figures within male-dominated environments and histories.

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Most Important Art

Self-Portrait (ca. 1937-38)
This painting perfectly summarizes Carrington's skewed perception of reality and exploration of her own femininity. The artist has painted herself posed in the foreground on a blue armchair, wearing androgynous riding clothes, facing outward to the viewer. She extends her hand toward a female hyena, and the hyena imitates Carrington's posture and gesture, just as the artist's wild mane of hair echoes the coloring of the hyena's coat. Carrington frequently used the hyena as a surrogate for herself in her art and writing; she was apparently drawn to this animal's rebellious spirit and its ambiguous sexual characteristics. In the window in the background, a white horse (which may also symbolize the artist herself) gallops freely in a forest. A white rocking horse in a similar position appears to float on the wall behind the artist's head, a nod to the fairytales of the artist's early childhood. Carrington had been raised in an aristocratic household in the English countryside and often fought against the rigidity of her education and upbringing. This painting, with its doublings, its transformations, and its contrast between restriction and liberation, seems to allude to her dramatic break with her family at the time of her romance with Max Ernst. The distorted perspective, enigmatic narrative, and autobiographical symbolism of this painting demonstrate the artist's attempt to reimagine her own reality.
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Biography

Childhood

Leonora Carrington was born in 1917 to Harold Carrington, an English, self-made textiles magnate, and his Irish-born wife, Maurie Moorhead Carrington. Carrington spent her childhood on the family estate in Lancashire, England. There she was surrounded by animals, especially horses, and she grew up listening to her Irish nanny's fairytales and stories from Celtic folklore, sources of symbolism that would later inspire her artwork. Carrington was a rebellious and disobedient child, educated by a succession of governesses, tutors, and nuns, and she was expelled from two convent schools for bad behavior.

Carrington was drawn to artistic expression over any other discipline; however, her parents were ambivalent concerning Carrington's artistic inclinations and they insisted on presenting her as a debutante at the court of King George V. When she continued to rebel, they sent her to study art briefly in Florence, Italy. Carrington was impressed by the medieval and Baroque sculpture and architecture she viewed there, and she was particularly inspired by Italian Renaissance painting. When she returned to London, Carrington's parents permitted her to study art, first at the Chelsea School of Art and then at the school founded by French expatriate and Cubist painter Amédée Ozenfant.

Early Training

Leonora Carrington Biography

Fortuitously, Carrington was exposed to the work of leading avant-garde figures in her late teens, during the internationalization of the Surrealist movement. During her studies at Ozenfant's academy, she was deeply affected by two books. One was a travel memoir by Alexandra David-Néel, a female explorer who walked to Lhasa, Tibet, in the 1920s disguised as a man and became a lama. The other was Sir Herbert Read's Surrealism, with a cover illustration by the German artist Max Ernst. In 1936 the 19-year-old Carrington attended the International Exhibition of Surrealism at London's New Burlington Galleries, and found herself drawn to the Surrealists' mysterious artistic codes. Like many of the Surrealists, Carrington came from a privileged background that was simultaneously an impediment on creativity; feeling suffocated by the rigidity and class prejudices of the English aristocracy, she was attracted to the transformative potency of Surrealist aesthetics.

In 1937 Carrington met Max Ernst at a party in London. The two fell in love and departed for Paris. Ernst left his wife, and he and Carrington settled in Saint-Martin-d'Ardeche in southern France in 1938. During this phase of their romance, Carrington immersed herself in Surrealist practices, exploring collaborative processes of painting, collage, and automatic writing with Ernst. However, their idyll came to an end with the progression of World War II. Ernst was arrested several times in German-occupied France and eventually fled to the United States with the help of Peggy Guggenheim, abandoning his relationship with Carrington. Destroyed by her separation from Ernst, Carrington left France and traveled to Madrid, narrowly escaping the Nazis. In Spain she suffered a psychotic breakdown and was hospitalized in a mental hospital in Madrid. When she began suffering from repeated delusions and anxiety attacks, her parents intervened in her medical care. Carrington was institutionalized and treated with shock therapy. The artist was traumatized by this ordeal, and she eventually sought refuge in Lisbon's Mexican embassy.

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Leonora Carrington Biography Continues

Mature Period

With the encouragement of André Breton, Carrington wrote about her experiences with mental illness in her first novel, Down Below (1945), and created several haunting, dark paintings evoking her psychotic breakdown, including one also titled Down Below (1941). Carrington would often look back on this period of mental trauma as a source of inspiration for her art. In 1941 Carrington married the Mexican poet and diplomat Renato Leduc, a friend of Pablo Picasso. In their short-lived partnership, Carrington and Leduc traveled to New York before eventually requesting an amiable divorce.

Carrington settled in Mexico in 1942. In Mexico City, she met the Jewish Hungarian photographer Emeric ("Chiki") Weisz, whom she married and with whom she had two sons, Pablo and Gabriel. Carrington devoted herself to her artwork in the 1940s and 1950s, developing an intensely personal Surrealist sensibility that combined autobiographical and occult symbolism. She grew close with several other Surrealists then working in Mexico, including Remedios Varo and Benjamin Péret. In 1947 Carrington was invited to participate in an international exhibition of Surrealism at the Pierre Matisse Gallery in New York, where her work was immediately celebrated as visionary and uniquely feminine. Her work was also featured in group exhibitions at the Museum of Modern Art and at Peggy Guggenheim's Art of this Century Gallery in New York.

Leonora Carrington Photo

Carrington's early fascination with mysticism and fantastical creatures continued to flourish in her paintings, prints, and works in other media, and she found kindred artistic spirits through her collaboration with the Surrealist theater group Poesia en Voz Alta and in her close friendship with Varo. Her continuing artistic development was enhanced by her exploration and study of thinkers like Carl Jung, the religious beliefs of Buddhism and the Kabbalah, and local Mexican folklore and mysticism.

Carrington was a prolific writer as well as a painter, publishing many articles and short stories during her decades in Mexico and the novel The Hearing Trumpet (1976). She also collaborated with other members of the avant-garde and with intellectuals such as writer Octavio Paz (for whom she created costumes for a play) and filmmaker Luis Buñuel. In 1960 Carrington was honored with a major retrospective of her work held at the Museo Nacional de Arte Moderno in Mexico City.

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Late Period

From the 1990s onward, Carrington divided her time between her home in Mexico City and visits to New York and Chicago. During these late years, she began producing bronze sculptures of animals and human figures in addition to her paintings, prints, and drawings. She occasionally gave lively interviews about her life and career, from her early Surrealist experiments to her later artistic exploits. Carrington died on May 25, 2011, in Mexico City of complications due to pneumonia. She was 94 years old.


Legacy

Leonora Carrington Portrait

Carrington played a significant role in the internationalization of Surrealism in the years following World War II, and she was a conduit of Surrealist theory in her personal letters and writings throughout her life, extending this tradition into the twenty-first century. Although her significant artistic output is frequently overshadowed by her early association with Ernst, Carrington's work has received more focused attention in recent years. Her visionary approach to painting and her intensely personal symbolism have most recently been reconsidered in the major retrospective exhibition 'The Celtic Surrealist' held at the Irish Museum of Modern Art in 2013. The relationship between Carrington's writing and her visual art is another subject of current interest. Lastly, feminist theory also plays a significant role in recent analysis of Carrington's art: Carrington's personal visual language of folklore, magic, and autobiography led the way for other female artists, such as Louise Bourgeois and Kiki Smith, who explored new ways to address female identity and physicality.

Influences and Connections

Influences on artist

Artists, Friends, Movements

Influenced by artist

Artists, Friends, Movements

Leonora Carrington
Interactive chart with Leonora Carrington's main influences, and the people and ideas that the artist influenced in turn.
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View Influences Chart

Artists

Hieronymus Bosch
André Breton
Max Ernst
Salvador Dalí

Friends

Carl Jung
Sigmund Freud

Movements

Cubism
Surrealism
Leonora Carrington
Leonora Carrington
Years Worked: 1936 - 2011

Artists

Frida Kahlo

Friends

Edward James

Movements

Feminist Art



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Useful Resources on Leonora Carrington

Special Features
Videos
Books
Websites
Articles
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artist features
Carrington and Fashion

Entry on Art Story Blog

Carrington and Hieronymus Bosch

Entry on Art Story Blog #2

The books and articles below constitute a bibliography of the sources used in the writing of this page. These also suggest some accessible resources for further research, especially ones that can be found and purchased via the internet.
Leonora Carrington

By Dawn Ades, Alyce Mahon, Sean Kissane, and Sarah Glennie

Leonora Carrington: Surrealism, Alchemy and Art

By Susan L. Alberth

Leonora Carrington: The Mexican Years

By Leonora Carrington

In Wonderland: The Surrealist Adventures of Women Artists in Mexico and the United States

By Ilene Susan Fort, Tere Arcq, Terri Geis, Dawn Ades, and Maria Buszek

More Interesting Books about Leonora Carrington
Leonora Carrington

By Kris Wilton
Art+Auction
June 2012

Nobody's Muse

By Edward M. Gomez
Art & Antiques
September 2011

Leonara Carrington

The Telegraph
May 26, 2011

Leonora Carrington Obituary

By Joanna Moorhead
The Guardian
May 26, 2011

More Interesting Articles about Leonora Carrington
in pop culture
The Flowering of the Crone: Leonora Carrington, Another Reality on IMDB

Documentary on Carrington, directed by Ally Acker

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Edited and published by The Art Story Contributors

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Surrealism
Surrealism
Surrealism
Perhaps the most influential avant-garde movement of the century, Surrealism was founded in Paris in 1924 by a small group of writers and artists who sought to channel the unconscious as a means to unlock the power of the imagination. Much influenced by Freud, they believed that the conscious mind repressed the power of the imagination. Influenced also by Marx, they hoped that the psyche had the power to reveal the contradictions in the everyday world and spur on revolution.
TheArtStory: Surrealism
Max Ernst
Max Ernst
Max Ernst
Max Ernst was a German Dadaist and Surrealist whose paintings and collages combine dream-like realism, automatic techniques, and eerie subject matter.
TheArtStory: Max Ernst
Cubism
Cubism
Cubism
Cubism was developed by Pablo Picasso and Georges Braque between 1907-1911, and it continued to be highly influential long after its decline. This classic phase has two stages: 'Analytic', in which forms seem to be 'analyzed' and fragmented; and 'Synthetic', in which pre-existing materials such as newspaper and wood veneer are collaged to the surface of the canvas.
TheArtStory: Cubism
Amedee Ozenfant
Amedee Ozenfant
Amedee Ozenfant
Amedee Ozenfant was a French painter and writer, who is widely regarded for his innovative approaches to Cubism. Along with Le Corbusier, Ozenfant founded the Purist movement, a Cubist style that stressed mathematical, geometric order over decorative, painterly elements.
Amedee Ozenfant
Peggy Guggenheim
Peggy Guggenheim
Peggy Guggenheim
Peggy Guggenheim, the neice of Solomon R. Guggenheim, was a collector, patron, and eclectic personality deeply connected to modern art. She gave important exhibitions to many Surrealist and Abstract Expressionist artists at her Art of This Century gallery in New York in the 1940s.
TheArtStory: Peggy Guggenheim
André Breton
André Breton
André Breton
André Breton, author of the 1924 Surrealist Manifesto, was an influential theorizer of both Dada and Surrealism. Born in France, he emigrated to New York during World War II, where he greatly influenced the Abstract Expressionists.
TheArtStory: André Breton
Pablo Picasso
Pablo Picasso
Pablo Picasso
Picasso dominated European painting in the first half of the last century, and remains perhaps the century's most important, prolifically inventive, and versatile artist. Alongside Georges Braque, he pioneered Cubism. He also made significant contributions to Surrealist painting and media such as collage, welded sculpture, and ceramics.
TheArtStory: Pablo Picasso
Carl Jung
Carl Jung
Carl Jung
Carl Gustav Jung was a Swiss psychiatrist and the founder of analytical psychology. Jung studied the human psyche through an exploration of dreams, religion, mythology and art. Jung's extensive work and interest in the human unconscious was a major influence on some of the Abstract Expressionists.
Carl Jung
Luis Bunuel
Luis Bunuel
Luis Bunuel
Luis Bunuel Portoles was a Spanish-born Mexican filmmaker and avant-garde auteur. Heavily influenced by Surrealism, Dada and religious lore, Bunuel's films were famous for their disturbing imagery and dreamlike sensibility. In addition to his adopted Mexico, he filmed in France and the United States.
TheArtStory: Luis Bunuel
Louise Bourgeois
Louise Bourgeois
Louise Bourgeois
Louise Bourgeois was a French-American artist whose work added a feminist perspective to Surrealist themes of sex, childhood, and the uncanny. She is best known for her sculpture Fillette (1968) and her large-scale spider sculptures, such as Maman (1999).
TheArtStory: Louise Bourgeois
Kiki Smith
Kiki Smith
Kiki Smith
Kiki Smith's art undermines the traditional erotic representations of women, and often exposes the inner biological systems of females as a metaphor for hidden social issues. Smith has also been active in debate over controversies such as AIDS, gender, and race.
TheArtStory: Kiki Smith
Hieronymus Bosch
Hieronymus Bosch
Hieronymus Bosch
Hieronymus Bosch was a Dutch painter during the Northern Renaissance. He painted absurd imagery involving real and imaginary figures in vast landscapes that demonstrated allegories, narratives and morality lessons. Bosch never signed or dated his work, which makes attribution difficult.
Hieronymus Bosch
Salvador Dalí
Salvador Dalí
Salvador Dalí
Salvador Dalí was a Spanish Surrealist painter who combined a hyperrealist style with dream-like, sexualized subject matter. His collaborations with Hollywood and commercial ventures, alongside his notoriously dramatic personality, earned him scorn from some Surrealist colleagues.
TheArtStory: Salvador Dalí
Sigmund Freud
Sigmund Freud
Sigmund Freud
Sigmund Freud was an Austrian neurologist who in the early twentieth century founded the psychoanalytic school of psychology. His theories on the human unconscious, arhcetypal forms and free association were very influential on many forms of modern art, including Surrealism and Abstract Expressionism.
Sigmund Freud
Frida Kahlo
Frida Kahlo
Frida Kahlo
Frida Kahlo is a twentieth-century Mexican artist whose work has a strong autobiographical component as it addresses issues of feminism and nationalism. Her work is often associated with Surrealism and she is best known for her many, often uncanny self-portraits.
TheArtStory: Frida Kahlo
Edward James
Edward James
Edward James
Edward James was an English poet known for his patronage of the Surrealist art movement. He financially supported Dalí for two years and allowed Rene Magritte to stay in his London house to paint. He appears in two of Magritte's paintings.
Edward James
Feminist Art
Feminist Art
Feminist Art
Feminist art emerged in the 1960s and '70s to explore questions of sex, power, the body, and the ways in which gender categories structure how we see and understand the world. Developing at the same time as many new media strategies, feminist art frequently involves text, installation, and performance elements.
TheArtStory: Feminist Art
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