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Artists Chris Burden
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Chris Burden

American Sculptor and Performance Artist

Movements and Styles: Performance Art, Conceptual Art

Born: April 11, 1946 - Boston, Massachusetts

Died: May 10, 2015 - Topanga, California

Chris Burden Timeline


"It's about trying to frame something. And draw attention to it and say, 'Here's the beauty in this. I'm going to put a frame around it, and I think this is beautiful.' That's what artists do. It's really a pointing activity."
Chris Burden
"I never thought of my things as theater. They were like scientific experiments. There's no second time. The first time you do something only happens once."
Chris Burden
"I also set up those unexpected, dreaded situations as an attempt to control fate. Instead of letting things happen to me, I made them happen."
Chris Burden
"Early on, people were saying that I was doing performances impromptu, which is kind of insane actually. They were very thought out. Even though it seemed minimal, they were thought out very carefully. I spent a lot of time trying to hone them to a minimal standard in my head before I performed them."
Chris Burden

"I had an intuitive sense that being shot is as American as apple pie. We see people being shot on TV, we read about it in the newspaper. Everybody has wondered what it's like. So I did it."


Chris Burden has produced some of the most shocking works in the history of 20th century American art, including spending five days and nights in the fetal position inside a locker, having a spectator push pins into his body, being "crucified" to a Volkswagen Beetle, being kicked down two flights of stairs, and even having himself shot. The challenge for viewers is to try to understand such troubling and seemingly "inartistic" gestures. Such an understanding is made possible by seeing these works within the context of Conceptual art during the 1970s, where artists concerned themselves with art based on ideas and action rather than objects created for an elite art market. Additionally, the violent images of the war in Vietnam and the television media in general provided a background setting for Burden. His work further challenges viewers to take stock of their own moral compasses and widen their understanding of the ways in which it is possible for art to serve humanity.

Key Ideas

Chris Burden's seemingly outrageous performances were in fact authentically intentioned. His art explores the nature of suffering by setting up extreme situations that he, himself, has to endure. Theoretically, a viewer can interrupt the work at any point, but usually they do not; thus, his work challenges viewers themselves to act - both within the sphere of his art and within the larger context of humanity in general.
The artist wanted to portray the reality of pain to the audience at a time when people had become desensitized to the plethora of television images of injured and dead American soldiers in Vietnam and the general dominance of violence in media imagery.
Burden also questioned the role of art itself. Can art be more than something precious, elite, and distant? To what extent can the artist be the work of art and how far can the artist go in leading viewers to think and respond?

Most Important Art

Chris Burden Famous Art

Shoot (1971)

Shoot is the piece for which Burden is infamously known. He asked a friend to shoot him with a .22 rifle from a distance of 15 feet. The bullet was originally supposed to nick the side of Burden's arm, but the shooter was slightly off target and the bullet went through the arm instead. This piece presented exactly what happens when a person is shot so that the audience could experience it in person, and not just in a detached setting such as watching the television while sitting comfortably on the couch. The viewer can only recoil in shock at realizing that an actual person was just shot in front of them. In describing the piece, Burden stated that "it was really disgusting, and there was a smoking hole in my arm." This work also poses questions about the nature of power and following orders, a theme especially indicated by the imperative of the title Shoot, itself. To what extent are we required to follow orders? What are the boundaries between rules and responsibility to fellow human beings? Burden's work was also a way of re-sensitizing people to the violence that had become less and less shocking due to its prevalence in the news. Finally, in addition to challenging the art world's traditional preference for the "fine art" of painting, for example, what Burden really seemed to be challenging was himself and his own dedication to his art. One cannot argue that someone who so consistently put himself in physical and mortal danger for his work was not completely dedicated to his art: in fact, Burden said that one of the reasons he performed Shoot was so that he would be taken seriously as an artist.
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Chris Burden Artworks in Focus:



Burden, the son of an engineer and a biologist, was born in Boston in 1946 and grew up in France and Italy. When he was 12, Burden was involved in a motorcycle accident in Italy that required his foot to be operated on without anesthesia. This traumatic event seemed to be the catalyst for his future works that focused on self-inflicted physical pain. Burden moved back to the states and finished high school in Cambridge, Massachusetts.

Early Training

Chris Burden Biography

In 1965, he moved to California and studied physics and architecture before receiving his B.F.A from Pomona College in 1969 and his M.F.A. from the University of California at Irvine in 1971, where one of his teachers had been the artist Robert Irwin. Burden began his performance pieces while still in college, and his master's thesis consisted of his shutting himself in a locker for five days without food, with a five-gallon jug of water above him and an empty five-gallon jug below him for waste. Burden was excited about the idea that his body and his actions could be considered a work of art with little or no other materials involved. This early performance set the tone for the often-masochistic pieces for which Burden would become famous. His pieces were usually done in front of a small audience who had heard of the event by word-of-mouth; he did not advertise in advance of his performances.

Burden's performance pieces consisted of inflicting actual physical pain and discomfort upon his body through some type of self-mutilation or a test of physical endurance through mounting and extreme discomfort. He was once referred to as "the Evel Knieval of Contemporary Art," as he would put himself in conditions that would be considered torture by today's standards. When asked about the intensity of his performances Burden would say it was a way of expressing himself artistically at a time when he did not have the money to express himself in any other way.

Mature Period

Chris Burden Photo

Burden's performances fit into his era's interest in pushing the limits of what could be considered art. However, Burden did not associate himself with any of the performance art movements of the time. Unlike many other performance artists, Burden would often video record his pieces, as the element he wished to place emphasis on was not the ephemeral, but the physicality of using his own body as the art. Burden began to work in performance art in the early 1970s, exposing himself to potentially dangerous actions. In 1974, for example, he performed Trans-Fixed (that involved his being nailed to a Volkswagen Beetle) in Venice, California.

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Chris Burden Biography Continues

Late Period

Between 1974 and 1983, Burden received four National Endowment for the Arts grants and from 1978 to 2005 he served on the faculty of UCLA. Burden's later work moved away from performance and veered more toward large-scale sculptures and installations with small, multiple parts, fueled by his interest in war toys and models. These pieces found their inspiration in politics, technology, engineering, and machinery, and usually had moving parts sometimes involving actions by people. His large-scale pieces related to his performances in their reaching beyond the conventional limits. "I am constantly searching for the edge," he stated when asked about the physical limits of gravity, distance, weight, and water in his work. Many of his installations are done with the help of grants; he has received numerous awards, including grants from the National Endowment for the Arts and a Guggenheim Fellowship.

In 2005, he left UCLA amid some controversy surrounding a stunt pulled by a student that caused some to label Burden a hypocrite. The student apparently brought in a very real-looking model of a gun and pretended to play Russian roulette in Burden's class before going out into the hall and setting off a firecracker. Burden argued that there was a time and place for that type of performance and it was not in the classroom.

In 2013, the New Museum mounted the show "Chris Burden: Extreme Measures," the first New York retrospective of the artist's work and his first major show in the United States in more than 25 years. Burden has exhibited all over the world, but is usually considered part of the Los Angeles art scene. He has stated that he does not want his early performance pieces reproduced and has turned down requests from Marina Abramovic to recreate Trans-Fixed (1974). Burden currently lives and works in the Topanga Canyon area of Los Angeles with his wife, artist Nancy Rubins.


More than any other recent American artist, Burden pushed the boundaries of what was acceptable in art, forcing viewers and critics to redefine their narrow, outmoded definitions of what art was and what it could do. He helped prove that art did not have to result in an object, and that art could be pushed to extreme limits and still be "art." This meant that art could be an experience, but because of the extreme discomfort that he forced both himself and his audiences to endure, not very many people actually saw his art in person. However, the works were documented in the form of photography and the printed word, which is how we continue to know and talk about them. His influence extended to future conceptual, performance, and installation artists, among them Carolee Schneemann and Marina Abramovic.

Influences and Connections

Influences on Artist
Artists, Friends, Movements
Influenced by Artist
Artists, Friends, Movements
Chris Burden
Interactive chart with Chris Burden's main influences, and the people and ideas that the artist influenced in turn.
View Influences Chart


Marcel DuchampMarcel Duchamp
Robert MorrisRobert Morris
Vito AcconciVito Acconci
Yoko OnoYoko Ono
Joseph BeuysJoseph Beuys

Personal Contacts

Robert IrwinRobert Irwin



Influences on Artist
Chris Burden
Chris Burden
Years Worked: 1969 to Present
Influenced by Artist


Gina PaneGina Pane
Marina AbramovićMarina Abramović
Dennis OppenheimDennis Oppenheim
Carolee SchneemannCarolee Schneemann

Personal Contacts

Peter SchjeldahlPeter Schjeldahl


Conceptual ArtConceptual Art
Body ArtBody Art
Performance ArtPerformance Art
Installation ArtInstallation Art

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Content compiled and written by Tracy DiTolla

Edited and published by The Art Story Contributors

" Artist Overview and Analysis". [Internet]. . TheArtStory.org
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Useful Resources on Chris Burden

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artist features

Extreme Acts of Chris Burden

Entry on Art Story Blog

The books and articles below constitute a bibliography of the sources used in the writing of this page. These also suggest some accessible resources for further research, especially ones that can be found and purchased via the internet.


Chris Burden Recomended resource

By Fred Hoffman, John Berger, Paul Schimmel, Chris Burden

Chris Burden: Extreme Measures

By Lisa Phillips and Massimiliano Gioni

Chris Burden: When Robots Ruled the Air

By Frances Morris

Chris Burden: Beyond the Limits

By Donald Kuspit, Chris Burden, and Lothar Schroder

Everything You Need to Know About Chris Burden's Art Through His Greatest Works Recomended resource

By Emily Anne Kuriyama
October 2, 2013

Public Offering: Sculptor Chris Burden, a Cult Figure on the L.A. Art Scene, Unveils Monumental Projects on Both Coasts

By Kevin West
W Magazine
May 2008

Chris Burden and the Limits of Art Recomended resource

By Peter Schjeldahl
The New Yorker
May 14, 2007

2 Artists Quit UCLA Over Gun Incident Recomended resource

By Mike Boehm
Los Angeles Times
January 2005

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