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Artists Lee Bontecou

Lee Bontecou

American sculptor, printmaker, and draftswoman

Movements: Abstract Expressionism, Neo-Dada, Minimalism

Born: January 15, 1931 - Providence, Rhode Island

Quotes

"Getting the black...opened everything up. It was like dealing with the outer limits."
Lee Bontecou
"The little pencil is a magic box, ... You can take a piece of paper and walk anywhere."
Lee Bontecou
"She's drawing with metal, she's painting with canvas. One of the things she pioneered was to get sculpture off the ground, to make something that was neither a painting nor a sculpture, but something in between."-
Elizabeth Smith, Museum of Contemporary Art Chicago
"Bontecou [has made] her work so strong and material that it can only assert itself...It is credible and awesome"
Donald Judd
"Bontecou's work embodies the paradox of the space age, especially in her pairing of the cosmic and the brutal. She speaks passionately of dichotomies and sees her sculpture as divided between optimistic works and angry war pieces, representing the positive and negative sides of science."
Mona Hadler
"War is beautiful because it initiates the dreamt-of metalization of the human body..."
Filippo Marinetti
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"I just got tired of sculpture as a big thing in the middle of a room. I wanted it to go into space."

Synopsis

The intricately constructed black holes, or voids, in Lee Bontecou's most famous pieces don't seem to belong to any type of art previously produced - painting or sculpture. These voids seem to connect to ulterior dimensions. Her work immediately calls to mind the alien worlds of science fiction and fantasy films and novels. Indeed, her methods, materials, and often vaguely unsettling images, set her apart from her contemporaries in the New York art world. Cited as a major influence by a variety of well-known artists, she nevertheless occupies an ambiguous place in the art history canon. She was difficult to categorize, both when she first emerged as a woman artist in the still largely male dominated New York art scene, and retrospectively. She was neither a Minimalist nor an Abstract Expressionist, although her work shares similarities with art from both movements. Despite being regarded as a Feminist artist, her art was not expressly feminist and, more importantly, she did not consider it as such. One of the most striking qualities of her work is that it struck a tense balance between celebrating technology and lamenting its impact on the natural world.

Key Ideas

Like some of the Dada artists, Bontecou embraced spontaneous mishaps. A major occurrence in her artistic exploration was her discovery of the way in which a torch for welding could produce an easily-controlled spray of the black soot that became a signature material in her work. The serendipitous soot led her to create the black holes (black that is a powerful, deathly void) that are almost ubiquitous in her work.
The tough, industrial exteriors of Bontecou's works function as frames for the void-like interiors. These gaps in the armor of her sculpture's surfaces are suggestive of bodily orifices that are somehow vulnerable and exposed. The concept of oppositions is a persistent theme in Bontecou's oeuvre and, in this case, she emphasizes the tension between the industrial and the organic: the latter, the natural environment, is susceptible to damage or even destruction by the former.
Bontecou was a pioneer in the use of unconventional materials, including scavenging and repurposing objects like metal tubing, saw blades, and miscellaneous scrap hardware. She often juxtaposed the industrial with earthy materials like soot and ragged linen canvas to create the stark contrasts that she transformed into vaguely sinister extraterrestrial landscapes and hybrid human/cyborg body-scapes.

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Most Important Art

Untitled (1959)
A relief from early in Bontecou's career, this work was produced from materials such as scrap metal or wire found outside of factories and warehouses, and broken conveyors from the laundromat above which the artist lived in the industrial Lower East Side. This particular relief bears a slight resemblance to the early Cubist collages of Picasso and Braque.

Inspired by her memories of war and by modern advancements in science and engineering, Bontecou juxtaposes scrap materials and organic forms to create an interplay between the natural and the industrial. To create this piece, she cut various lengths of canvas and, using salvaged copper wire, she sewed the canvas together so that a subtle, nautilus pattern spirals inward toward an oblong black void. She affixed the constructed composition to a welded steel frame, which because of her small stature, required Bontecou to stand on a ladder.

The nautilus shape references her love of nature and marine life. The black hole, purposely built into the composition, relates to the infinite mystery and wonder of the unknown universe. Following its construction, the hole was sprayed with soot and covered in black felt, which further enhanced the illusion of depth. Bontecou has created a compelling vortex into which the viewer is pulled as though being drawn irrevocably into an actual black hole. The intensity of the composition as a whole is enhanced by the way the fall relief actually invades the viewer's space, coming out powerfully out of the canvas.

Bontecou purposely left the connecting wires visible. Not only does the visibility of the materials create a sense of brutality -- and brutal honesty -- but it lends the relief a kind of harsh, unforgiving character, which the artist associated with warfare. The patched-up canvas, some of which is military surplus, acts as skin and directly relates to the fragility of mankind.
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Biography

Childhood and Education

Lee Bontecou was born in Providence, Rhode Island and grew up just outside of New York City in Westchester County. Her father, an engineer, built gliders for the military during the Second World War. Her mother, equally industrious, assembled submarine transmitters at a munitions factory. Exposure to their work fostered in her an early fascination with engineering and the mechanics of industry.

Bontecou's summers were spent in Nova Scotia, where her maternal grandmother lived on a small island. There she observed with great relish the diversity of lifeforms specific to the area. She spent her free time reading science fiction novels and studying marine life. As a youth during World War II as well as the postwar period, she saw the mingling of these two interests and the impact that industrial and technological development had on nature. This dichotomy of nature versus machine would be an enduring theme throughout her long artistic career.

Bontecou studied art at Bradford Junior College in Massachusetts for two years. In 1952, she enrolled at the Art Students League in New York where she remained until 1955. She was initially trained in academic painting but later turned her attention to sculpture. She studied under William Zorach, whose abstract figurative sculptures were an early compositional influence. She spent the summer of 1954 at the Skowhegan School in Maine, where she learned welding and afterwards began to incorporate it into her figurative sculptures.

Early Period

Lee Bontecou Biography

In 1956, Bontecou was awarded a Fulbright Fellowship to study in Rome. She spent the entire academic year experimenting with her craft in attempts to establish her own distinctive style. As an aspect of her study, the artist traveled periodically in Italy, studying public art and architecture. She was especially interested in the architecture of Italian piazzas, the sculpture of the ancient Greeks and Romans, and the ancient Etruscan art that had inspired Alberto Giacometti. Her work from this period, primarily extensions of the abstract figurative pieces she created at the Art Students League, featured animal forms, particularly birds. Their cast, elongated bodies, resembled the works of Giacometti. She was also exposed to the art of the Italian Futurists like Umberto Boccioni and to the works of Alexander Calder. She became personally acquainted with Calder, whose signature mobiles undoubtedly influenced her later mobile sculptures.

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Lee Bontecou Biography Continues

In 1957, while still in Rome, Bontecou discovered that the blowtorch she used in welding could produce a rich spray of black soot when the oxygen was turned off. That same year the Soviet Union launched the satellite Sputnik into space. Her discovery, at that time in history changed the nature and direction of her artwork. Thereafter, she persisted in exploring the seemingly infinite potential of what she referred to as "the black" and produced a series of soot drawings that she referred to as Worldscapes, other worldly landscapes featuring forms resembling craggy rock formations and striated, streaky skies captured in grisaille.

Bontecou returned to New York in 1958, taking up residence in a loft above a laundromat in the then-industrial and depressed Lower East Side. The canvas work that she had begun in Rome was becoming increasingly larger and more assertive. She continued to experiment with the artistic properties of soot, the residual elements of which are the central focus of her sculptures of the late 1950s. In 1959, her work captured the attention of artist and art critic, Donald Judd, who became one of her earliest supporters and regarded her sculptures as early Minimalist prototypes. He wrote several essays about her work between 1960 and 1965.

Bontecou's residence in the heart of old industrial New York provided her with easy access to discarded laundry bags, conveyor belts, and various materials discarded as mechanical waste. These found materials became an integral part of her wall reliefs of the early 1960s. Like many of her contemporaries, she was drawn to the formal properties of these discarded materials. She reimagined them, fused the industrial with the organic, and created artworks that emblematized the contradictory space age.

Bontecou has described her wall reliefs as, among other things, expressions of her anger towards war. The post-war images of Holocaust victims she'd seen as a child remained with her well into adulthood and her angst concerning war was further fueled by the Vietnam War, the Cold War, and the countless conflicts occurring around the world at the time. That abiding, cynical outlook was balanced by a certain optimism inspired by the unprecedented expansion of human endeavors made possible by space exploration. These two conflicting emotional states were reflected in her monumental sculptures.

In 1960, Bontecou had her first solo exhibition at the Leo Castelli Gallery in New York. The show was well received and generated an outpouring of praise and interest on the part of critics, collectors, and museum curators. Shortly afterward, she was featured in Art in America's "New Talent" issue of 1960. Additionally, she was profiled in numerous periodicals ranging from Time and Life to Vogue, Mademoiselle, and Cosmopolitan. She was also included in Ugo Mulas's landmark exhibition, New York: The Art Scene, where her work was on display alongside that of established artists such as Jasper Johns, Roy Lichtenstein, and Andy Warhol.

Not only was Bontecou the sole female artist represented by the Castelli Gallery at that time, she was also one of the few women artists to receive substantial attention in the larger context of the hyper-masculine New York art scene of the era. Her gender and the broad recognition she garnered also made Bontecou a favorite in Feminist art circles, although she never referred to herself as a "feminist" artist per se. Regardless, many critics and curators insisted on discussing her wall reliefs, with their black voids, in feminist terms. For instance, the black holes were thought to represent mouths or vaginas. She resisted these associations and consistently emphasized that her intention in the use of blackened voids was to evoke mystery and a range of emotional responses to the unknown, the wondrous, and the sublime. The feminist interpretation was further challenged by writer, professor, and art critic, Dore Ashton, who, in a 1962 essay, insisted that Bontecou's signature black holes were indicative of destruction, "like looking down the barrel of a gun".

Although, she never affiliated herself with any specific movement, Bontecou had tremendous respect and admiration for the Abstract Expressionist artists. She appreciated both their expressive freedom and the fact that, ostensibly, they were not beholden to theory. Artistic freedom and the ability to experiment were two of the most important considerations for her and, throughout the early 1960s, she explored the possibilities of other media, including lithography, one of the results of which was her 1963 to 1964 lithographic series titled Stones. Around the same time, Bontecou determined that her compositions were in need of lighter-weight materials to produce the effects she desired; thus, she began using materials like silk, balsa wood, and later, vacuum-formed plastic.

Mature Period

Lee Bontecou Photo

In 1962, Rachel Carson wrote her environmental treatise Silent Spring, a controversial commentary on the state of the environment that resonated intensely with the nature-loving Bontecou. Inspired by contemporary political and environmental concerns, she shifted her focus to more natural, organic forms. She also attributes this shift in the trajectory of her work to major changes in her personal life: In the spring of 1965, she married fellow artist, Bill Giles and soon after gave birth to her daughter, Valerie. Along with another couple, Giles and Bontecou purchased a parcel of land in rural Pennsylvania. She had always been a naturalist at heart and her love of nature was rekindled in this country setting. The forms that inspired her were strongly evocative of biological life - predominantly fish, plants, and flowers. She integrated natural observations with her imagination and created altered representations of flora and fauna.

In 1971, Bontecou accepted a faculty position at Brooklyn College, where she taught ceramics and sculpture for 20 years while continuing to create artworks in her barn. That same year, she exhibited her plastic fish and flowers at the Leo Castelli Gallery. Reception of her strange, hybrid forms was lackluster and precipitated her decision to not only leave the gallery but to also abandon the fickle New York art world itself, a world that she felt held fast to the status quo, seemingly preferring the wall reliefs that she produced early in her career rather than encouraging her exploration and development as an artist. The exhibition at the Castelli Gallery would be her last solo show for many years.

Current Work

Lee Bontecou Portrait

In 1993, Elizabeth A. T. Smith, then curator of the Museum of Contemporary Art, Los Angeles, organized a show that included a number of Bontecou's drawings and sculptures from the 1960s. The success of this exhibition rekindled interest in her work. Artist and curator continued to correspond and Bontecou invited Smith to visit her rural retreat.

That same year, Bontecou was diagnosed with aplastic anemia, a life-threatening illness that subjected her to hospitalization and blood transfusions every three days. She recovered in 2000 and began to collaborate with Smith on a retrospective exhibition, which opened in 2004. It was the first time in 30 years that her work was shown publicly. She continues to work out of her barn in Pennsylvania.


Legacy

Bontecou's persistent experimentation - her use of non-traditional techniques and materials, set her apart from other artists of the period and, particularly, the Abstract Expressionists, who still relied largely on conventional materials and processes despite their rejection of objective representation.

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Artists such as Eva Hesse and Donald Judd, who were part of the next generation, cite her work as deeply influential. Indeed, it was Judd who proclaimed that her soot-based sculptures were prototypes of Minimalist sculpture. Contemporary artists such as Nancy Grossman, Petah Coyne, Arlene Schechet, and Robert Gober point to Bontecou as influential to their installation pieces. Kiki Smith, who saw several sculptures by Bontecou while still in high school, famously said of the older artist, ''She became important by her absence. As a woman artist who had made it, she came to represent a model of how to escape, how to leave the art world and keep on working, which I think about all the time.''

Influences and Connections

Influences on artist

Artists, Friends, Movements

Influenced by artist

Artists, Friends, Movements

Lee Bontecou
Interactive chart with Lee Bontecou's main influences, and the people and ideas that the artist influenced in turn.
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View Influences Chart

Artists

Richard Bellamy
Constantin Brancusi
Alberto Giacometti
Alexander Calder

Friends

Joseph Cornell

Movements

Abstract Expressionism
Minimalism
Feminist Art
Lee Bontecou
Lee Bontecou
Years Worked: 1957 - present

Artists

Eva Hesse
Robert Morris
Donald Judd

Friends

Dore Ashton
Donald Judd

Movements

Minimalism
Feminist Art



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Useful Resources on Lee Bontecou

Books
Websites
Articles
Videos
More
The books and articles below constitute a bibliography of the sources used in the writing of this page. These also suggest some accessible resources for further research, especially ones that can be found and purchased via the internet.
biography
Modern American Sculpture

By Dore Ashton

Women, Art and Society

By Whitney Chadwick

Women Artists of America: 1707-1964

By William H. Gerdts

American Women Artists

By Charlotte Streifer Rubinstein

More Interesting Books about Lee Bontecou
Surviving Reality: Lee Bontecou's Worldscapes

By Jo Applin
Tate Papers no. 14

Lee Bontecou: Artscene

By Diane Calder
Artscenecal.com
October 4, 2003

The Uncanny Eye: Lee Bontecou

By Collette Chattopadhyay
The International Sculpture Center
March, 2004

The Terms of Craft and Other Means of Making: Lee Bontecou's Hybrid Trajectory

By Elyse Speaks
Art Journal Open
April 29, 2013

Missing In Action

By Calvin Thomas
The New Yorker Magazine
August 4, 2003

Modern Women: Veronica Roberts on Lee Bontecou

Museum of Modern Art (MOMA) New York

transcripts
Lee Bontecou Doesn't Care What You Think

By Mara Tapp
The Chicago Reader
March 4, 2004

Oral History Interview with Lee Bontecou

By Dore Ashton
Archives of American Art
January 10, 2009

reviews
The Menil Collection Showcases Fifty Years of Lee Bontecou's Surreal Drawings

By Rebecca Bates
Architectural Digest

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Cite this page

Content compiled and written by Whitney Porter

Edited and revised by Debra Thimmesch

" Artist Overview and Analysis". [Internet]. . TheArtStory.org
Content compiled and written by Whitney Porter
Edited and revised by Debra Thimmesch
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Minimalism
Minimalism
Minimalism
Minimalism emerged as a movement in New York in the 1960s, its leading figures creating objects which blurred the boundaries between painting and sculpture, and were characterized by unitary, geometric forms and industrial materials. Emphasizing cool anonymity over the passionate expression of the previous generation of painters, the Minimalists attempted to avoid metaphorical associations, symbolism, and suggestions of spiritual transcendence.
TheArtStory: Minimalism
Abstract Expressionism
Abstract Expressionism
Abstract Expressionism
A tendency among New York painters of the late 1940s and '50s, all of whom were committed to an expressive art of profound emotion and universal themes. The movement embraced the gestural abstraction of Willem de Kooning and Jackson Pollock, and the color field painting of Mark Rothko and others. It blended elements of Surrealism and abstract art in an effort to create a new style fitted to the postwar mood of anxiety and trauma.
TheArtStory: Abstract Expressionism
Feminist Art
Feminist Art
Feminist Art
Feminist art emerged in the 1960s and '70s to explore questions of sex, power, the body, and the ways in which gender categories structure how we see and understand the world. Developing at the same time as many new media strategies, feminist art frequently involves text, installation, and performance elements.
TheArtStory: Feminist Art
Dada
Dada
Dada
Dada was an artistic and literary movement that emerged in 1916. It arose in reaction to World War I, and the nationalism and rationalism that many thought had led to the War. Influenced by several avant-gardes - Cubism, Futurism, Constructivism, and Expressionism - its output was wildly diverse, ranging from performance art to poetry, photography, sculpture, painting and collage. Emerging first in Zurich, it spread to cities including Berlin, Hanover, Paris, New York and Cologne.
TheArtStory: Dada
Alberto Giacometti
Alberto Giacometti
Alberto Giacometti
The Swiss artist Alberto Giacometti created semi-abstract sculptures that took up themes of violence, sex, and Surrealism. His famous later work is characterized by towering, elongated figures in bronze.
TheArtStory: Alberto Giacometti
Futurism
Futurism
Futurism
Futurism was the most influential Italian avant-garde movement of the twentieth century. Dedicated to the modern age, it celebrated speed, movement, machinery and violence. At first influenced by Neo-Impressionism, and later by Cubism, some of its members were also drawn to mass culture and nontraditional forms of art.
TheArtStory: Futurism
Umberto Boccioni
Umberto Boccioni
Umberto Boccioni
Umberto Boccioni was an Italian painter and sculptor. Like the other Futurists, his work centered on the portrayal of movement (dynamism), speed, and technology. After moving to Milan in 1907, he became acquainted with the Futurists, including the famous poet Filippo Tommaso Marinetti, and became one of the movement's main theorists.
TheArtStory: Umberto Boccioni
Alexander Calder
Alexander Calder
Alexander Calder
Alexander Calder was an American artist who made important contributions to abstract sculpture, hanging mobiles, and Kinetic art. His work reflects both modern and Surrealist influences.
TheArtStory: Alexander Calder
Donald Judd
Donald Judd
Donald Judd
Donald Judd was an early and influential Minimalist artist who made large-scale geometric objects, often of industrial materials and serially arranged on the floor or wall. He helped found the Chinati Foundation in Marfa, Texas, where many key works of Minimalism are installed.
TheArtStory: Donald Judd
Jasper Johns
Jasper Johns
Jasper Johns
Jasper Johns is an American artist who rose to prominence in the late 1950s for his multi-media constructions, dubbed by critics as Neo-Dada. Johns' work, including his world-famous targets and American flags series, were important predecessors to Pop art.
TheArtStory: Jasper Johns
Roy Lichtenstein
Roy Lichtenstein
Roy Lichtenstein
Roy Lichtenstein was an American painter and a pioneer of the Pop art movement. His signature reproductions of comic book imagery eventually redefined how the art world viewed high vs. lowbrow art. Lichtenstein employed a unique form of painting called the Benday dot technique, in which small, closely-knit dots of paint were applied to form a much larger image.
TheArtStory: Roy Lichtenstein
Andy Warhol
Andy Warhol
Andy Warhol
Andy Warhol was an American Pop artist best known for his prints and paintings of consumer goods, celebrities, and photographed disasters. One of the most famous and influential artists of the 1960s, he pioneered compositions and techniques that emphasized repetition and the mechanization of art.
TheArtStory: Andy Warhol
Dore Ashton
Dore Ashton
Dore Ashton
Dore Ashton is an American art critic, historian and professor. In her groundbreaking book The New York School, Ashton famously credited Jackson Pollock as the artist who "broke the ice" and first established New York City as the leading city for avant-garde art.
TheArtStory: Dore Ashton
Eva Hesse
Eva Hesse
Eva Hesse
Eva Hesse was a major New York artist whose sculpture, assemblage, and installation brought issues of feminism and the body into Minimalism's formal vocabulary. She is heralded as one of the quintessential Post-Minimalist artists.
TheArtStory: Eva Hesse
Robert Gober
Robert Gober
Robert Gober
Robert Gober is an American artist whose work often relates to domestic and familiar objects such as sinks, doors and legs. Despite their appearance, his sculptures are meticulously handcrafted. He represented the United States at the 2001 Venice Biennale.
Robert Gober
Kiki Smith
Kiki Smith
Kiki Smith
Kiki Smith's art undermines the traditional erotic representations of women, and often exposes the inner biological systems of females as a metaphor for hidden social issues. Smith has also been active in debate over controversies such as AIDS, gender, and race.
TheArtStory: Kiki Smith
Neo-Dada
Neo-Dada
Neo-Dada
Neo-Dada refers to works of art from the 1950s that employ popular imagery and modern materials, often resulting in something absurd. Neo-Dada is both a continuation of the earlier Dada movement and an important precursor to Pop art. Some important Neo-Dada artists include Robert Rauschenberg, Jasper Johns, Robert Morris and Allan Kaprow.
TheArtStory: Neo-Dada
Richard Bellamy
Richard Bellamy
Richard Bellamy
Richard Bellamy was a New York art dealer whose Green Gallery was one of the most important showcases of avant-garde art during the American art explosion of the early 1960s. He devoted much of his later curatorial career to the work of artist Mark di Suvero.
Richard Bellamy
Constantin Brancusi
Constantin Brancusi
Constantin Brancusi
Constantin Brancusi, a Romanian artist working in Paris, was one of the founders of modern sculpture. His abstracted animals, portrait busts, and totem-like figures revolutionized the traditional relationship between the sculpture and its base.
TheArtStory: Constantin Brancusi
Joseph Cornell
Joseph Cornell
Joseph Cornell
Joseph Cornell was an American artist, best known for his collage work and "shadow boxes," which were highly complex diorama-like constructions. Cornell incorporated found objects, old photos, newspaper clippings and other objects into these boxes, resulting in uniquely surreal, three-dimensional worlds. Cornell was one of the few American artists associated with Surrealism.
TheArtStory: Joseph Cornell
Robert Morris
Robert Morris
Robert Morris
Robert Morris is an American artist whose early L-beam and column sculptures were key works in Minimalism. His work also includes felt and fabric pieces, performance, body art, and earthworks, often with an emphasis on process and theatricality.
TheArtStory: Robert Morris
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