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Artists Pierre Bonnard

Pierre Bonnard

French Painter and Printmaker

Movements: Post-Impressionism, Les Nabis, Symbolism

Born: October 3, 1867 - Fontenay-aux-Roses, France

Died: January 23, 1947 - Le Cannet, France

Quotes

"Draw you pleasure, paint your pleasure, and express your pleasure strongly."
Pierre Bonnard
"I have all my subjects to hand .. I go back and look at them. I take notes. Then I go home. And before I start painting I reflect, I dream."
Pierre Bonnard
"One does not always sing out of happiness."
Pierre Bonnard
"Color does not add a pleasant quality to design - it reinforces it."
Pierre Bonnard
"A painting that is well composed is half-finished."
Pierre Bonnard

"Art is not nature.. There was a lot more to be got out of color."

Synopsis

Pierre Bonnard was a member of the Symbolist group of painters known as Les Nabis ("prophets" or "seers"), and so subscribed to the Nabi doctrine of abandoning three-dimensional modeling in favor of flat color areas. However, although Bonnard was a member of this group, he was not interested in obscure Symbolist subject matter and was not a mystic. Instead, he was satisfied - even fascinated and delighted by - the scenes of simple daily life around him. Because of this, he has been called an "intimist."

Key Ideas

For Bonnard, color was an end in itself - a way of experiencing the world. Color was so important to Bonnard that when he had mixed a color that was particularly to his liking, he would even go back and touch up other paintings with that color. He once persuaded his friend Édouard Vuillard to distract one of the guards in a museum while he touched up a work that had been completed years previously.
Bonnard painted many of his scenes from memory, capturing the spirit of the moment rather than the exact person or place. Bonnard did not paint from life but rather drew his subjects - sometimes photographing them as well - and made notes on the colors. He then painted - and especially, colored - the canvas in his studio from his notes.
Bonnard also designed furniture, developed textile patterns, painted screens, created stage sets, made puppets for puppet shows, and illustrated books. Though he is most noted for his paintings, these additional activities also situate him squarely within that part of Nabi art that applied their aesthetic to other art forms; this aspect of his practice reflects both that period's interest in the decorative as a way to unify the environment through largely abstract means and artists' interest in serving the needs of public spaces, including the burgeoning field of advertising.
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Most Important Art

Dining Room in the Country (1913)
Bonnard was fascinated with different levels of perspective and with the tricks of perspective. In this painting there are no real space-defining objects - the chair and the washstand blend into the wall. The composition is a "corner composition," moving diagonally across the table, treated as a vertical plane, through the doorway to the woman to the landscape. Then there is a cross-diagonal movement through the chair to the washstand. This spatial movement is largely dependent on color; color is the primary director of this painting. Our eye is carried from the indoors to the outdoors via the red color. The door is the same color as the landscape, the table, and the crockery. Bonnard also contrasts the warm orange-red colors of the interior and the cool whites of the outdoors - a contrast accompanied by a heightened quality of the light.

Typically, Bonnard's figures appear less psychologically complex than the figures of Vuillard. As in this painting, the figure seems withdrawn - functioning as a mere prop - and is, in fact, psychologically recessive. That she seems to lack tangibility and psychological presence is borne out of the fact that although she is outdoors, the artist has placed her within a shadow and painted her in the same color as the interior wall. Bonnard is less interested in the specificity of the person, and instead, sets up a very complex spatial organization emphasizing that which is indoors and that which is outdoors, thus heightening Impressionist color and harnessing it to the service of linking figure to environment rather than recording a specific time of day. As is characteristic of the artist's work, the emphasis is on embedding the figure into the sensuous environment of both the depicted scene and the painted reality.
More Art Works


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Biography

Childhood, Early Training

Bonnard was born in Fontenay-aux-Roses, Hauts-de-Seine, on October 3, 1867. He was the son of a prominent official of the French Ministry of War, and upon the insistence of his father, Bonnard studied law at the Sorbonne from 1885 to 1888. He graduated with a Baccalaureate, distinguishing himself in the Classics, and briefly practiced as a barrister in a government office. However, he had also attended art classes at the École des Beaux-Arts, where he failed to win the Prix de Rome (which would have allowed him to study at the French Academy in Rome), and so transferred to the Académie Julian in 1889, where he met Maurice Denis, Paul Sérusier, Ker-Xavier Roussel, Paul Ranson, Félix Vallotton, and Édouard Vuillard. He soon decided to become an artist, and in 1890 shared a studio in Montmartre with Denis and Vuillard. Later they were joined by theatrical producer Aurélian Lugné-Poe with whom Bonnard collaborated on productions for the Théâtre de l'Oeuvre in Paris. Thus, still in his twenties, Bonnard joined Les Nabis, a group of young artists committed to creating work of a symbolic and spiritual nature. His friends nicknamed him a "highly Nipponized Nabi" in reference to the Japanese prints that influenced him. This influence had been termed "Japonisme" as of 1872 and had also been ascribed to the work of the Impressionists and Post-Impressionists.

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Mature Period

Pierre Bonnard Biography

In 1891, Bonnard met Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec and began showing his work at the annual exhibition of the Société des Artistes Indépendants. In the same year, Bonnard also began his association with La Revue Blanche for which he and his friend Vuillard designed frontispieces. His lithographs were published in 1895 by the well-known art dealer Ambroise Vollard, and the same year he designed a stained glass window for Louis Comfort Tiffany. His first one-person show was at Galerie Durand-Ruel in 1896. He illustrated poet Paul Verlaine's book of Symbolist poems Parallèlement in 1900. Around this time, he painted landscapes in the style of the Impressionists and Paul Gauguin in the countryside between Paris and Normandy.

As of 1907, Bonnard traveled extensively though Europe and North Africa, although these excursions seemed not to have affected his art to any great extent. He left Paris in 1910 for the south of France. Aside from a few war-themed sketches, there are no traces of the war's effect on his art either. Bonnard was described by historians and his own friends as a man of "quiet temperament," and one who was unobtrusively independent. His often complex compositions - typically of sunlit interiors of rooms and gardens populated with friends and family members - are both narrative and autobiographical.

His wife, whom he had met in 1893 as Maria de Meligny, was an ever-present subject over the course of several decades. It was not until they married 32 years later in 1925 that Bonnard became aware that her real name was Maria Boursin. He also painted several self-portraits, landscapes, street scenes, and many still lifes depicting flowers and fruit. His habit was to work on numerous canvases simultaneously, which he tacked onto the walls of his small studio; in fact, Bonnard had one of the smallest studios in the history of modern art. In this way he could more freely determine the shape of a painting: as he noted, "it would bother me if my canvases were stretched onto a frame. I never know in advance what dimensions I am going to choose."

Late Years

Pierre Bonnard Photo

Bonnard had moved to Le Cannet near Cannes in the south of France as of 1926. In his old age, he returned to the dazzling light and color of his earlier work. In 1938, there was a major exhibition of his work along with Vuillard's at the Art Institute of Chicago. During World War II, he maintained his residence in Le Cannet, continuing there as a recluse even after his wife died in 1942. Shortly before his death he completed the large mural Saint Francis Healing the Sick (1947) for the Church of Assy. He finished his last painting, The Almond Tree in Blossom (1947), a week before his death in his cottage on La Route de Serra Capeou near Le Cannet on the French Riviera. The Museum of Modern Art in New York organized a posthumous retrospective of Bonnard's work in 1948, although originally it was meant to be a celebration of the artist's 80th birthday. Although Bonnard avoided public attention, his work sold well during his life.

Legacy

Pierre Bonnard Late Photo

At the time of his death, Bonnard's reputation had already been eclipsed by subsequent avant-garde developments in the art world. Reviewing a retrospective of Bonnard's work in Paris in 1947, the critic Christian Zervos assessed the artist in terms of his relationship to Impressionism and found him wanting: he noted, "in Bonnard's work Impressionism becomes insipid and falls into decline." Henri Matisse responded by saying; "I maintain that Bonnard is a great artist for our time and, naturally, for posterity." Thus, Bonnard has often been identified as a late Impressionist, but this label falls short of his contributions to painting. Bonnard's work is, rather, characterized by a unique use of color that enriched and heightened the Impressionist palette. His use of overlapping planes of color seems even to prefigure the Cubists' use of planes penetrating one another.

Bonnard has also been cited for his unique expression of wit in and through painting. In a 2009 review of Bonnard in The New Republic, Jed Perl saw in Bonnard's work a "quality that might be characterized as perceptual wit - an instinct for what will work in a painting. Almost invariably he recognizes the precise point where his voluptuousness may be getting out of hand, where he needs to introduce an ironic note. Bonnard's wit has everything to do with the eccentric nature of his compositions. He finds it funny to sneak a figure into a corner, or have a cat staring out at the viewer. His metaphoric caprices have a comic edge, as when he turns a figure into a pattern in the wallpaper. And when he imagines a basket of fruit as a heap of emeralds and rubies and diamonds, he does so with the panache of a magician pulling a rabbit out of a hat."


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Influences and Connections

Influences on artist

Artists, Friends, Movements

Influenced by artist

Artists, Friends, Movements

Pierre Bonnard
Interactive chart with Pierre Bonnard's main influences, and the people and ideas that the artist influenced in turn.
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Artists

Johannes Vermeer
Pierre-Auguste Renoir
Paul Gauguin

Friends

Claude Monet
Pierre-Auguste Renoir
Maurice Denis
Édouard Vuillard

Movements

Symbolism
Art Nouveau
Japonisme
Impressionism
Pierre Bonnard
Pierre Bonnard
Years Worked: 1889 - 1947

Artists

Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec
Henri Matisse

Friends

Felix Feneon
Ambroise Vollard

Movements

Fauvism
Les Nabis

Content compiled and written by The Art Story Contributors

Edited and published by The Art Story Contributors

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Useful Resources on Pierre Bonnard

Books
Websites
Articles
Videos
The books and articles below constitute a bibliography of the sources used in the writing this page. These also suggest some accessible resources for further research, especially ones that can be found and purchased via the internet.
biography
Pierre Bonnard

By Evelyn Benesch, Ulf Kuster, Pierre Bonnard

Pierre Bonnard: Early and Late

By Elizabeth Hutton Turner, Pierre Bonnard, Nancy Wolsk

Interpreting Bonnard: Color and Light

By Nicholas Watkins

Pierre Bonnard: The Work of Art, Suspending Time

By Yves-Alain Bois, Pierre Bonnard

Luminous Legacy

By Rachel Spence
The Financial Times
July 22, 2011

Complicated Bliss

By Jed Perl
The New Republic
April 1, 2009

The Violent Beauty of Color

By Lance Esplund
The Wall Street Journal
March 25, 2009

Bonnard Late in Life, Searching for the Light

By Roberta Smith
The New York Times
January 29, 2009

Pierre Bonnard: In Search of Pure Color

1984 Documentary on Bonnard

Vermilion in the Orange Shadows: Bonnard's Late Painting

Lecture by Dita Amory at the Metropolitan Museum of Art

Bonnard and Escapism

Lecture by Julian Bell at the Metropolitan Museum of Art

Pierre Bonnard, In a Southern Garden

Discussion of Bonnard's Painting at the Museum of Fine Arts Bern

Symbolism
Symbolism
Symbolism
Symbolism is an artistic and literary movement that first emerged in France in the 1880s. In the visual arts it is often considered part of Post-Impressionism. It is characterized by an emphasis on the mystical, romantic and expressive, and often by the use of symbolic figures.
ArtStory: Symbolism
Les Nabis
Les Nabis
Les Nabis
Les Nabis were a group of Post-Impressionist artists in 1890s Paris including Maurice Denis, Pierre Bonnard, and Edouard Vuillard. They combined Impressionist brushstrokes with vivid colors, an at-times mystical or symbolic subject matter, and an interest in patterned and repeating backgrounds.
ArtStory: Les Nabis
Édouard Vuillard
Édouard Vuillard
Édouard Vuillard
Edouard Vuillard was a French Post-Impressionist painter especially known for his interiors and domestic scenes. A member of the Les Nabis group, his works are characterized by rough areas of color, pointillist daubs and dots, and decorative patterns that spread out across background fabrics and wallpaper.
ArtStory: Édouard Vuillard
Maurice Denis
Maurice Denis
Maurice Denis
Maurice Denis was a French painter and writer, recognized as an important member of the Symbolist and Les Nabis movements. A pioneering theorist who insisted on the flatness of the picture plane, Denis created brightly colored Post-Impressionist works that profoundly influenced the next generation of modern artists.
Maurice Denis
Paul Sérusier
Paul Sérusier
Paul Sérusier
Paul Serusier was a French Symbolist and Post-Impressionist painter, a central member of Les Nabis, and a key proponent of the late-nineteenth-century artistic movements Synthetism and Cloisonnism. Influenced, in part, by the work of Paul Gauguin, his innovative painting style incorporated vibrant color, abstract form, natural motifs, and religious themes.
Paul Sérusier
Ker-Xavier Roussel
Ker-Xavier Roussel
Ker-Xavier Roussel
Ker-Xavier Roussel, also known as K.X. Roussel, was a French painter, best known for his involvement with the French avant-garde group Les Nabis and the Neo-Impressionist movement. Incorporating a subdued color palette and thick brushstrokes, Roussel focused on natural and mythical subject matter, including bucolic landscapes and fictitious figures.
Ker-Xavier Roussel
Paul Ranson
Paul Ranson
Paul Ranson
Paul Ranson was a French artist and one of the founding figures of the French avant-garde group Les Nabis. Influenced by the decorative arts, his paintings feature thick outlines, bright colors, flattened dimensionality, and a variety of motifs, including landscape and portraiture.
Paul Ranson
Félix Vallotton
Félix Vallotton
Félix Vallotton
Felix Vallotton was a Swiss painter and printmaker, and a major figure of the French avant-garde group Les Nabis. Recognized for his interest in decorative aesthetics and the flatness of the picture plane, Vallotton painted landscapes, still lifes, and portraits and was heralded for his inventive use of woodcut printing.
Félix Vallotton
Impressionism
Impressionism
Impressionism
A movement in painting that first surfaced in France in the 1860s, it sought new ways to describe effects of light and movement, often using rich colors. The Impressionists were drawn to modern life and often painted the city, but they also captured landscapes and scenes of middle-class leisure-taking in the suburbs.
ArtStory: Impressionism
Post-Impressionism
Post-Impressionism
Post-Impressionism
Post-Impressionism refers to a number of styles that emerged in reaction to Impressionism in the 1880s. The movement encompassed Symbolism and Neo-Impressionism before ceding to Fauvism around 1905. Its artists turned away from effects of light and atmosphere to explore new avenues such as color theory and personal feeling, often using colors and forms in intense and expressive ways.
ArtStory: Post-Impressionism
Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec
Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec
Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec
Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec was a Post-Impressionist artist who depicted the dancers, prostitutes, drinkers, and other characters of fin-de-siecle Paris. He is known for his paintings, his caricatures of friends, and his well-designed posters for Parisian dance halls.
ArtStory: Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec
Paul Gauguin
Paul Gauguin
Paul Gauguin
Paul Gauguin was a French Post-Impressionist artist who employed color fields and painterly strokes in his work. He is best known for his primitivist depictions of native life in Tahiti and Polynesia.
ArtStory: Paul Gauguin
Henri Matisse
Henri Matisse
Henri Matisse
Henri Matisse was a French painter and sculptor who helped forge modern art. From his early Fauvist works to his late cutouts, he emphasized expansive fields of color, the expressive potential of gesture, and the sensuality inherent in art-making.
ArtStory: Henri Matisse
Johannes Vermeer
Johannes Vermeer
Johannes Vermeer
Regarded as one of the foremost masters of Dutch painting, Johannes Vermeer was a seventeenth-century artist who specialized in domestic interior scenes of middle-class life. Influenced by the work of Anthony van Dyck, Hendrick ter Brugghen, and Caravaggio, Vermeer's powerful oeuvre consists of balanced compositions and psychologically laden portraits, tempered by soft-focus elements, luminous effects, and naturalistic details.
Johannes Vermeer
Pierre-Auguste Renoir
Pierre-Auguste Renoir
Pierre-Auguste Renoir
Pierre-Auguste Renoir was one of the leading figures of French Impressionism during the late-nineteenth century. Renoir tended to favor outdoor scenes, gardens bathed in sunlight, and large gatherings of people. Known as a master of light, shadow and color, Renoir was also highly esteemed for his depiction of natural movement on the canvas. In terms of the French Impressionists' lasting popularity and fame, Renoir is perhaps second only to Monet.
ArtStory: Pierre-Auguste Renoir
Claude Monet
Claude Monet
Claude Monet
Claude Monet was a French artist who helped pioneer the painterly effects and emphasis on light, atmosphere, and plein air technique that became hallmarks of Impressionism. He is especially known for his series of haystacks and cathedrals at different times of day, and for his late Waterlilies.
ArtStory: Claude Monet
Art Nouveau
Art Nouveau
Art Nouveau
Art Nouveau was a movement that swept through the decorative arts and architecture in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. Generating enthusiasts throughout Europe, it was aimed at modernizing design and escaping the eclectic historical styles that had previously been popular. It drew inspiration from both organic and geometric forms, evolving elegant designs that united flowing, natural forms with more angular contours.
ArtStory: Art Nouveau
Japonisme
Japonisme
Japonisme
Japonisme describes the influence of Japanese art, especially woodblock prints, on French artists in the second half of the nineteenth century. Many Post-Impressionists were influenced by the flat blocks of color, the emphasis on design, and the simple, everyday subject matter.
Japonisme
Felix Feneon
Felix Feneon
Felix Feneon
Felix Feneon was a Parisian anarchist and art critic during the late-nineteenth century. He coined the term "Neo-Impressionism" in 1886 to identify a group of artists led by Georges Seurat, and ardently promoted them.
Felix Feneon
Ambroise Vollard
Ambroise Vollard
Ambroise Vollard
Ambroise Vollard was an important dealer, collector, and arts patron in late nineteenth-centry and early twentieth-century Paris. His interests were diverse, spanning Impressionism, Post-Impressionism, Expressionism, and modernism, and included such artists as Renoir, Cézanne, Gaugin, Matisse, and Picasso.
Ambroise Vollard
Fauvism
Fauvism
Fauvism
Fauvism was an early twentieth-century art movement founded by Henri Matisse and André Derain. Labeled as "wild beasts", Fauve artists favored vibrant colors and winding gestural strokes across the canvas.
ArtStory: Fauvism