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Artists Bernd and Hilla Becher
Bernd and Hilla Becher Photo

Bernd and Hilla Becher

German Photographers

Movement: Conceptual Art

Born: Bernd: August 20th, 1931 - Siegen, Germany
           Hilla: September 2nd, 1934 - Potsdam, Germany

Died: Bernd: June 22nd, 2007 - Rostock, Germany
           Hilla: October 10th, 2015 - Dusseldorf, Germany

Bernd and Hilla Becher Timeline


"For me, photography is by its very nature free of ideology. Photography with ideology falls to pieces."
Hilla Becher
"Technology is above requiring an interpretation; it interprets itself. You merely need to select the right objects and place them precisely in the picture; then they tell the story of their own accord."
Hilla Becher
"I was interested in a straightforward 19th-century way of photographing an object. To photograph things frontally creates the strongest presence and you can eliminate the possibilities of being too obviously subjective."
Hilla Becher
"What is an artist? Calling yourself an artist does not make you one, that's for others to decide. It doesn't make any sense to say: I am an artist!"
Hilla Becher
"...art schools used to put the fear of God into their students by asking them "Can you make a living out of that?" We wanted just the opposite and simply told them to make stuff first and then we'd go on from there."
Bernd Becher
"I've always said that we are documenting the sacred buildings of Calvinism. Calvinism rejects all forms of art and therefore never developed its own architecture. The buildings we photograph originate directly from this purely economical thinking."
Bernd Becher
"This is about objects, not motifs. The photo is only a substitute for an object; it is unsuitable as a picture in its customary sense."
Bernd Becher
"These things are so full of fantasy there is absolutely no sense in trying to paint them; I realized that no artist could have made them better. This is purely economic architecture. They throw it up, they use it, they misuse it, they throw it away."
Bernd Becher
"Our camera does not produce pretty pictures, but exact duplications that, through our renunciation of photographic effects, turn out to be relatively objective. The photo can optically replace its object to a certain degree. This takes on special meaning if the object cannot be preserved."
Bernd Becher
"All we did was to turn back the time to a photography of precision which is superior to the human eye."
Bernd Becher
"the Bechers' way of working belongs to the past now. This is a requiem for a lost world and shows that, through the passing of time, even that which was once considered purely functional and even ugly, can attain beauty when seen through the eyes of the most attentive photographers."
Art Critic Sean O'Hagan

"Photography basically means nothing more than collecting."

Bernd and Hilla Becher Signature


Bernd and Hilla Becher spent their career documenting industrial structures across the Western world, creating a form of photography arranged by type that, through repetition, encourages viewers to engage deeply with the formal qualities of the subject matter. The Bechers took thousands of images and divided these into categories based on function and sequences based on formal similarities, borrowing from scientific classification for artistic ends, focusing attention on the hitherto overlooked, suggesting that industrial forms were worthy of scrutiny. Their work is rigorously objective in its aims, but in its exacting presentation stimulates consideration of the ways in which people organize and receive information about their own environments and the wider world. Bernd and Hilla Becher aspired to direct the audience's attention away from the photograph, emphasizing the content rather than light, perspective, or other artistic choices, but in doing so created a school of photography that forced reconsideration both of the presentation of images and the preservation of the built environment.

Key Ideas

Since the 1960s, the Bechers have focused exclusively on industrial structures that are typically overlooked. Their photographs focus the audience's vision on buildings and machinery from which people typically look away, demanding serious consideration. Their consistent focus on presenting structures associated with the coal and steel industries leads the viewer to reconsider their aesthetic preferences and encourages ongoing interest in industrial form.
Bernd and Hilla Becher's work aspires toward objective documentation, aiming for images without subjectivity. Their photographs reacted against the prevailing mid-20th-century trend toward images in which the subject of a photograph is transformed by artistic elements such as soft focus, atmospheric lighting, or creative perspective. The Bechers photographed all structures in the same way, from a direct angle with a low horizon against a grey sky that minimized shadows, cropping each image so that the subject filled the frame.
The Bechers' images are often associated with Conceptual art, due to the way in which they transform structures into form through removing them from their political and environmental context, even though the artists rejected this association. In arranging and displaying the images in sequences according to type, the works emphasize the similarities and differences between the structures that are presented. In this way, the arrangement of images acts as a commentary on aesthetics.
The Bechers' lack of apparent consideration of industry's role in Nazi Germany is striking and has been subject to some criticism. A number of sites that they photographed were almost certainly involved in producing machinery and weapons used by German forces in World War II, but their images give no indication of this, tightly focusing on aesthetics at the expense of historical engagement. While other artists working in the same period argued that it was not possible to look at the past without considering the Holocaust and the rupture of World War II, the Bechers sought continuity with Weimar photographic traditions and focused on remnants of the industrial age that arguably came to a close with World War II whilst avoiding political questions of memory. This has evoked questions about the moral responsibilities of artists, with some critics arguing that representation of the world is sufficient while others suggest that such a position is immoral; another group argues that the Becher's reluctance to engage is so extreme that it constitutes a response to, rather than an evasion of, questions of historical responsibility.

Most Important Art

Bernd and Hilla Becher Famous Art

Cooling Tower (1967)

This photograph shows a cooling tower in Bochum, Germany against a grey sky, rendered in black and white. The structure, constructed of wood with iron bars in a crossed pattern, is wide at the base and tapers slightly toward the middle, with a ladder leading up to the top; it fills the frame of the image, with other components of the site cropped out. Cooling towers, which originated in Europe in the nineteenth century before spreading internationally, are designed for use across a range of industrial sites, including oil refineries and food processing plants, and work to expel waste heat from water, forcing steam upward to evaporate into the atmosphere so that the water might be reused. Bernd and Hilla Becher photographed over two hundred cooling towers over the course of their career, ranging from early wooden forms to more recent concrete structures.

Cooling Tower is emblematic of the Bechers' approach across their career; the presentation of the structure aspires toward the objective and impersonal. This photograph was taken with a large-format camera from a frontal perspective. The cooling tower is isolated from its context as part of a larger industrial site. There are no figures or other visual indicators, such as steam, that suggest the structure's ongoing use. Nonetheless, it is not romanticized; it is shown in clear focus, with an even depth of field, with no attempts to distort through atmospheric lighting or unusual angles. This technique serves to concentrate the audience's attention on the structure, encouraging consideration of the formal properties of the cooling tower itself as opposed to the means of representation.
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Bernd and Hilla Becher Artworks in Focus:



Bernd Becher was born in 1931 and raised in the town of Siegen, close to the Hainer Hütte steelworks, where many of his relatives worked. He had an apprenticeship as a painter and decorator with his father's company and spent a period in Italy working on his architectural drawing skills before enrolling in the State Art Academy in Stuttgart in 1954, where he would study painting, typography and graphic art. Bernd Becher foresaw that the creation of the European Economic Community in 1957 would transform industrial landscapes and he began sketching the Siegerland area and taking photographs to use as a basis for linocuts and lithographs around this point, due to the speed with which buildings were being demolished.

Hilla Wobeser was born in 1934 and raised in Potsdam, where she began taking photographs at the age of thirteen, encouraged by a mother who had trained as a photographer in the 1920s. She began a three-year apprenticeship with Ernst Eichgrün, an architectural photographer, where her assignments included photographing the gardens and buildings of the Sanssouci Palace for a book and documenting the spaces and activities of a railway repair shop. After this, Wobeser moved to Hamburg to work as an aerial photographer and then to Dusseldorf.

Early Training and Work

Bernd Becher and Hilla Wobeser met working at the Troost advertising agency in Dusseldorf in 1957. Both studied at the Dusseldorf Art Academy whilst working in advertising; Wobeser also taught courses in photography to her peers. The pair began to work together to document disappearing industrial architecture in 1959, their different backgrounds and approaches complimenting one another. In 1961, they married and left the Dusseldorf Art Academy, continuing their collaborative work as artists while Bernd worked as a graphic designer and Hilla worked for an architect's office, documenting pavilions and exhibitions.

Bernd and Hilla Becher with son, whom they took on photoshoots with them.
Bernd and Hilla Becher with son, whom they took on photoshoots with them.

The Bechers' photographs, throughout their decades of collaboration, focused on documenting industrial sites, isolating particular buildings and organizing these by type, displaying multiple examples alongside one another, or by perspective, offering eight views of one structure, rotating around it and taking a photograph at each 45 degree angle. They began by focusing on Siegerland, largely for practical reasons, due to the cost of travel, before expanding to the Ruhr and then internationally, looking at industrial buildings in Holland, Belgium, Luxembourg, Northern France and the United States. The Bechers felt that their project was urgent and of the utmost importance; they did not take vacations, instead dedicating all available hours to their photography. In 1966, when they received a grant from the British Council allowing them to take photographs in England, Scotland and Wales, they worked with their two-year-old son, Max, at their feet. Over the following decades, the Bechers would visit and revisit sites, documenting various industrial buildings, often just before these structures were demolished. They frequently travelled in a campervan with a portable darkroom, maximizing their productivity while on the road.

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Bernd and Hilla Becher Biography Continues

Mature Period

During the 1960s, Bernd and Hilla Becher's work circulated primarily in industrial and architectural journals. In their 1967 exhibition at the Neue Sammlung in Munich, the emphasis was on the buildings that were documented rather than on the photographs themselves. These sites of presentation were appropriate to the aims of the Bechers' work, which focused around using photography as a means of documentation. Toward the end of the 1960s, the Bechers began to accompany their many series focused on type with series that showed industrial landscapes from a more removed perspective with the intention of providing a more comprehensive record of the sites in which they were interested.

Bernd and Hilla Becher, Guggenheim Museum, 1972 (Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum Archives, New York)
Bernd and Hilla Becher, Guggenheim Museum, 1972 (Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum Archives, New York)

In 1969, Bernd and Hilla Becher were given a solo exhibition at the Städtische Kunsthalle in Dusseldorf. The venue was simultaneously hosting an exhibition of Minimalist art from the United States of America and the photographs, seen in this context, were exposed to new audiences and led to their positioning as Conceptual artists. In 1970, their photographs were included in the Museum of Modern Art's landmark show Information and in 1972 their work was selected for Documenta 5, solidifying their position within Conceptual art circles. Bernd and Hilla Becher, however, continued to see and speak of themselves as documentary photographers, insisting that their aim was to create a record of industrial sites rather than to meditate on the nature of perception itself. Their work differed from that of others within the Conceptual art movement in its emphasis on photographs that sought to archive a specific subject of value through rigorous compositions. Hilla Becher claimed, in 1974, that the question of whether their work was art or not was "not very interesting." The Bechers, even as they were embraced by the art world, pursued the documentation of industry in a single-minded fashion.

Nonetheless, Bernd and Hilla Becher's work continued to be displayed alongside that of Conceptual artists and their disavowal of the term cannot be taken purely at face value. While reluctant to talk about their photographic process, the level of skill evident in their images and their own professional training indicates that they must have been aware of the degree to which a photograph could not, as they often argued, be truly objective, given the number of decisions that shaped each image and each sequence of images. The Bechers' interest in organizing their images, additionally, closely resembles the interest in systems and transmission of information that was often central to Conceptual Art. The Bechers distanced themselves from approaches to their work that were overly interpretative, arguing that their work was purely a record which did not convey personality or feeling, yet maintained that others were free to view the images in whichever way they wished. This attitude stemmed from one of the paradoxes of the Bechers' career; the couple disliked authorial presence and the idea of the individual artist as visionary, but to discount others' claims required exercising such presence.

Late Period

Klaus Honnef in conversation during the vernissage of the Karl Blossfeldt exhibition, right Hilla, in the background Bernd Becher, Rheinisches Landesmuseum Bonn. Photograph by Franz Fische (1976)
Klaus Honnef in conversation during the vernissage of the Karl Blossfeldt exhibition, right Hilla, in the background Bernd Becher, Rheinisches Landesmuseum Bonn. Photograph by Franz Fische (1976)

Bernd Becher was appointed as Chair of Artistic Photography at the Dusseldorf Art Academy in 1976, establishing the school's photography program. Teaching, like photography, was largely collaborative; while Bernd Becher held the position, Hilla Becher worked alongside him throughout his time at the Academy. This gave the couple greater stability and facilitated continued recognition of their work internationally. In 1991, the pair won a Golden Lion at the Venice Biennale. Bernd Becher retired from teaching in 1996, but Bernd and Hilla Becher continued to work, visiting sites across Europe and North America, until Bernd Becher's death in 2007. The couple viewed their task as infinite and urgent and it was only in the eight years between her husband's death and her own, in 2015, that Hilla Becher travelled to countries without industrial sites to document.


Bernd and Hilla Becher's legacy is substantial, with a wide range of artists and photographers having been shaped by their emphasis on objectivity, their approach to changing environments and their development of typology as a means of organizing images. While the Bechers' own work was heavily influenced by the Weimar movement of New Objectivity of the 1920s, their prominence at a point when subjectivity was the prevailing trend meant that they played a pivotal role in conveying this tradition to their own generation and photographers that followed, particularly in the United States, where their work was widely shown. Their influence can be seen on their contemporaries in the New Topographics movement, including photographers such as Stephen Shore, Lewis Baltz, and Robert Adams. The New Topographics photographers focused on the examination of vernacular architectures and landscapes free from romanticism, recording the impact of human activity on the natural environment rather than presenting idealized images. Some, such as Ed Ruscha, organized their images as the Bechers did, by type.

Bernd & Hilla Becher receive the Erasmus Prize 2002 from Prince Bernhard of the Netherlands. Photograph: Courtesy of the Praemium Erasmianum Foundation.
Bernd & Hilla Becher receive the Erasmus Prize 2002 from Prince Bernhard of the Netherlands. Photograph: Courtesy of the Praemium Erasmianum Foundation.

The legacy of the Bechers can also be seen in attitudes to industrial architecture itself. In 1970, Bernd and Hilla Becher began to actively campaign for the preservation of the structures they photographed and their images played a part in wider appreciation of industrial form. Their influence can be seen in the subsequent protection of numerous industrial buildings and, particularly, in the art world's embrace of former industrial spaces as sites for museums such as Mass MoCA and the Tate Modern.

Hilla Becher at the Museum of Modern Art, Paris for the “Cooling Towers” show. (2008)
Hilla Becher at the Museum of Modern Art, Paris for the “Cooling Towers” show. (2008)

Bernd and Hilla Becher's influence as educators is also widespread, with those who studied under them in the 1970s and 1980s including Candida Höfer, Andreas Gursky, Thomas Struth, and Thomas Ruff. These photographers, like the Bechers, tend to minimize human presence even as they explore landscapes and spaces shaped by human influence and employ documentary techniques, such as even depth of field and perspectives that aspire to objectivity. This group are now often referred to as the Dusseldorf School of Photography, in reference to the shared origins of their work in the Bechers' classes.

Influences and Connections

Influences on Artist
Artists, Friends, Movements
Influenced by Artist
Artists, Friends, Movements
Bernd and Hilla Becher
Interactive chart with Bernd and Hilla Becher's main influences, and the people and ideas that the artist influenced in turn.
View Influences Chart


August SanderAugust Sander
Karl Blossfeldt
Albert Renger-Patzsch
Marcel DuchampMarcel Duchamp

Personal Contacts

Carl AndreCarl Andre
Tata Ronkholz
Angelika Wengler


Conceptual ArtConceptual Art
New Objectivists

Influences on Artist
Bernd and Hilla Becher
Bernd and Hilla Becher
Years Worked: 1959 - 2007
Influenced by Artist


Thomas RuffThomas Ruff
Andres Gursky
Thomas StruthThomas Struth
Candida Höfer
Jörge Sasse

Personal Contacts

Gabriele Conrath-Scholl
Ileana Sonnabend
Robert SmithsonRobert Smithson
Sol LeWittSol LeWitt


Dusseldorf schoolDusseldorf school
Conceptual ArtConceptual Art
New Topographics

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Useful Resources on Bernd and Hilla Becher





The books and articles below constitute a bibliography of the sources used in the writing of this page. These also suggest some accessible resources for further research, especially ones that can be found and purchased via the internet.


Bernd and Hilla Becher: Basic Forms Recomended resource

By Susanne Lange

Typologies of Industrial Buildings Recomended resource

By Bernd and Hilla Becher

Bernd and Hilla Becher: Life and Work Recomended resource

By Susanne Lange

Bernd and Hilla Becher: Typologie, Typologien, Typologies

By Bernd and Hilla Becher

More Interesting Books about Bernd and Hilla Becher
August Sander/Bernd and Hilla Becher: 'A Dialogue' Recomended resource

By Vicki Goldberg
The New York Times
May 22, 2014

Hilla Becher, Photographer Who Chronicled Industrial Scenery Dies at 81 Recomended resource

By Sewell Chan
The New York Times
October 14, 2015

Instant Expert: Bernd and Hilla Becher

By Emma Hamilton
The American Photo Magazine
November 21, 2011

Review/Photography; Making Industrial Buildings Look Like Butterflies

By Charles Hagen
The New York Times
January 22, 1993

Becher Photography Exhibition in the Ruhr Valley Recomended resource

Contacts: Bernd and Hilla Becher (2008_ Recomended resource

From Contacts Vol. 3, Portraits of Contemporary Photographers. Initiated by William Klein, 2000
Part 1 of 3

Bernd and Hilla Becher, Michael Blackwood Productions (2006)

Excerpt from film

Lecture: Shannon Ebner on Bernd and Hilla Becher

Dia Art Foundation 2013

More Interesting Videos with Bernd and Hilla Becher
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